Flashcards in Chapter 14- Warmup And Flexibility Training Deck (67):
Which of the following is a no temperature-related effect of a warm up?
A. Enhance neural function
B. Elevation of baseline oxygen consumption
C.disruption of transient connective tissue bonds
When stimulated during PNF stretching, Golgi tendon organs allow the relaxation of the ?
A. Stretched muscle by contracting the reciprocal muscle
B. Reciprocal muscle by contracting the stretched muscle
C. Stretched muscle by its own contraction
Which of the following stretching techniques decreases muscle spindle stimulation?
Stimulation of muscle spindles induces a?
A. Relaxation of GTO
B. Contraction of the stretched muscle
A well designed warm up can confer a number of physiological responses that can potentially increase subsequent performance. These can be divided into temperature related effects and non temperature related effects.
_____ related effects include an increase in muscle temp, core temp, enhanced neural function, and the disruption of transient connective tissue bonds.
____ effects can include increased blood flow to muscles, an elevation of baseline oxygen consumption, and post activation potentiation.
Non temperature related effects
The structure of warm up influences potential improvements, as such, the Warm-up needs to be specific to the activity to be performed.
An effective warm up has also traditionally been thought to decrease injury
Generally a warmup consist of a period of aerobic exercise, followed by stretching, and ending with a period of activity similar to the upcoming activity.
Two key phases in a warm up
The first is a ___ warmup period, which may consist of 5 minutes so slow aerobic activity such as jogging skipping or cycling. The aim is to increase HR, blood flow, muscle temp, respiration rate, and decrease viscousity of joint fluids. This phase is followed by stretching
General warm up
Following the general warm up is the ___ warmup period, which incorporates movements similar to the movements of the athletes sport, this phase should include rehersal of the skill to be performed.
Typically the warm up should last between ____ and ___ minutes
The ___ is an integral part of the training session
One structure that has been adopted by many coaches and that addresses all of the key aspects of an effective warmup is the RAMP protocol. (Raise, activate and mobilize, and potentiate)
Builds on the general and specific warm up
The first phase of RAMP involves activities that RAISE the level of key physiological parameters but also the levels of skill of the athletes.
This phase is analogous to the general warmup and has the aim of elevating body temp, HR, respiration rate, blood flow, and joint fluid viscosity.
The second phase, ACTIVATING and MOBILIZING is analogous to the stretching component of a typical warmup.
Key movements patterns required for the athletic performance in both the subsequent session and in the athletes overall development, the focus on mobility or full ROM requires a combination of motor control, stability, flexibility
Recent review by Kay and blaze inch concludes that there is clear evidence that short duration static stretching has NO detrimental effect on subsequent performance unless stretches are held for greater than 60 seconds.
If more ROM then spend more time on it
The third phase, POTENTIATION is analogous to the specific warm up but importantly also focuses on the intensity of activity.
This phase deploys sport specific activities that progress in intensity until the athlete is performing at the intensity required for the competition or training session
The more power necessary for the sport or activity, the more IMPORTANT the ____ phase.
The degree of movement that occurs at a joint is called ____
____ is a measure of ROM and has static and dynamic components.
_____ flexibility si the range of possible movement about a joint and its surrounding muscles during a passive movement. Requires NO voluntary muscular activity; an external force such as gravity, a partner, or machine provides the force for a stretch.
___ flexibility refers to the available ROM during active movements and therefore requires voluntary muscular actions. Dynamic ROM is generally greater than static ROM
Optimizing flexibility in relation to the specific activity rather than simply maximizing flexibility is the main aim of training.
There are optimal ranges of flexibility for different sports and activities, and injury risk may be increased when an athlete is unable to attain this range. It is also important to note that both inflexibility and hyper flexibility can result in high risks of injury
A number of anatomical and training related factors affect flexibility. Training CANNOT alter some factors such as joint structure, age, and sex
The structure of a joint determines its ____
Ball and socket joints , such as hips and shoulders move in ALL anatomical planes and have the GREATEST ROM of all joints.
The wrist is an ellipsodial joint primarily allowing movement in the Sagittal and frontal planes, it's ROM is significantly less than shoulder and hip
The knee is a modified ___ joint, with movement primarily in the Sagittal plane, it's ROM is less than ball and socket joint and ellipsodial wrist joint
___ people tend to be more flexible than ___ people.
YOung / older
Older people undergo ____ in which fibrous connective tissue replaces degenerating muscle fibers. This is likely due to inactivity an tendency to use less of the available ROM during movement
A range of body tissues can influence ____
___ the ability to return to original resting length after a passive stretch
___ the tendency to assume a new and greater length after a passive stretch
AN important factor in determining an athlete's flexibility is ____ tolerance, or the ability to tolerate discomfort of stretching
Individuals with ___ ROM tend to demonstrate a greater level of stretch tolerance and are thus able to tolerate a greater stretch loAD.
The control of an athlete's ROM is ultimately held at the level of the central and peripheral nervous system and less by structural elements. This system includes both afferent and effect mechamsm rustling in both reflexive and conscious activities that ultimately control the ROM and athlete is able to attain.
A comprehensive and proper resistance training program may ___ flexibility and also assist in the development of force capacity thought the enhanced ROM
Heavy resistance training with limited ROM during the exercises may decrease the ROM. To prevent the loss of ROM, and athlete should perform exercises that develop both agonist and antagonist muscles.
A significant increase in muscle bulk may adversely affect ROM by impeding joint movement.
Ex) an athlete with large biceps or deltoid a may experience difficulty in stretching the tricep
An ___ person tends to be more flexible than an ___ one.
It is important to understand that activity level alone does not improve flexibility; stretching exercises or exercises requiring the body to move through a full ROM are essential if joint flexibility is to be maintained or increased
The acute effects of stretching on ROM are transient and are greatest immediately after the stretching sessions, then they decline.
For longer lasting effects, a dedicated flexibility program is required.
Stretching ___ per week for a minimum of ___ weeks has been shown to significantly improve flexibility.
2x per week for 5 weeks
For ___ stretching 15-30 seconds is generally recommended
WHen performing static stretching, athletes should hold the stretch at a position of mild discomfort ( not pain)
Intensity of stretching
Stretching should be performed following practice/ competition.
Post practice should be performed 5-10 minutes after practice. The increased body temp increases the elastic properties of collagen within muscles and tendons which allows for greater stretch magnitude.
Stretching should e performed as a separate session.
If increased levels of flexibility are required, additional stretching sessions may be needed.
Two important proprioceptors should be considered during stretching: _____ and ______
Golgi tendon organs
___ ____ located within intramural muscle fibers that run parallel to extramural muscle fibers, monitor changes in muscle length
stimulation of the muscle spindle and the subsequent activation of the stretch reflex should be avoided during stretching, as it will be limited by the reflexive action .
If the spindles are NOT stimulated, the muscle relaxes and allows greater stretch
The ___ a mechanoreceptor located near the musculotendinous junction is sensitive to increases in muscular tension. When stimulated, it causes a muscle to reflexively relax
Relaxation that occurs in the same muscle that is experiencing increased tension is called _____ ____
Tension built up during the active contraction stimulates the GTO, causing a reflexive relaxation of the muscle during the passive stretch.
Relaxation that occurs in the muscle opposing the muscle experiencing the increased tension is called ____ ____
A ___ stretch occurs when the person stretchin supplies the force of the stretch.
A ____ stretch occurs when a partner or a stretching machine provides external force to cause or enhance a stretch.
A ___ stretch is slow and constant, with the end position held for 15-30 seconds. Because it's performed slow, it's does NOT elicit the stretch reflex of the stretch muscle; therefore the likelihood of injury is less than ballistic stretching.
A ___ stretch typically involves active muscular effort and uses a bouncing type of movement in which the end position is not held.THis type of stretching is used preexercise warmup but could injure muscles.
____ stretching usually triggers the stretch reflex that does not allow the involved muscles to relax, which may limit ROM, so the strength and conditioning professional should monitor this during the session.
A ____ stretch is a type of functionally based stretching exercise that uses sport generic and sport specific movements to prepare the body for activity,. Also referred to as MOBILITY DRILLS
___ stretching avoids bouncing and s performed in a more controlled manner
_____ _____ ____ stretching was originally developed as part of a neuromuscular rehab program designed to relax muscles with increased tone or activity/
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
___ techniques are usually performed with a partner and involve both passive movement and active muscle contractions.
____ stretching can be impractical because most of the stretches require a partner and some expertise.
There are 3 types of PNF stretching techniques.
3.hold-relax with agonist contraction
Starts with a passive stretch for about 10 seconds. The partner then applies a hip flex ion force and instructs the athlete to "hold and don't let me move the leg" the athlete resists the movement so isometric muscle action happens 6 seconds. Then the athlete relaxes allowing a greater magnitude