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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (29)
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Aphasia is the result of focal damage to the brain.

True or False

 

 

True - usually due to impaired blood flow (i.e. ischemia) , which causes cell death (area of infarction), 

*focal brain damage is commonly caused by a stroke

2

 

 

Arteriosclerosis, thrombus, and an embolism are part of this type of stroke.

Hint: sclerosis is hardening which will then cause a

 

 

Occlusive - blocking blood flow through an artery 

*arteriosclerosis - thickening or hardening of the arterial wall

*thrombus - accumulation of blood platelets on arterial wall

*embolism - blockage of an artery by an embolus (traveling particle or debris in arterial bloodstream)

3

 

 

 

An aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation (AVM) are this type of stroke.

hint: aneurynein means to dilate

 

 

 

hemorrhage - rupture of a vessel in brain

4

 

 

 

An individual with Broca's Aphasia will be fluent, can comprehend and can repeat.

True or False

 

 

False - an individual with Broca's Aphasis is nonfluent, can comprehend, and can't repeat

*nonfluent, reduced verbal output, increased effort speaking, dysprosody (disrupted rhythm), and agrammatism*

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f2IiMEbMnPM#t=34

5

 

 

An individual with Wernicke's Aphasia will have fluent speech, trouble with auditory comprehension, and can't repeat.

True or False

 

 

True - fluent aphasia, speech is frequently paraphasic (lots of unintended productions), and difficulty with auditory comprehension

*Lesion - Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus and Wernicke's Area

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aVhYN7NTIKU

6

 

 

An individual who is fluent, has poor repetition, and good auditory comprehension is said to have...

 

 

Conduction Aphasia - fluent, poor repetition, frequent phonemic paraphasias

*Lesion - arcuate fasciculus as well as supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal cortex, posterior superior temporal gyrus

7

 

 

An individual who is not fluent, can't repeat, and cannot comprehend is to have Global Aphasia.

True or False

 

 

True - severe expressive and receptive aphasia, nonfluent, limited speech output, or even recurrent nonlexical (i.e. bam bam)

*Lesion - most of the perisylvian language zone

8

 

 

An individual who is said to have very good repetition, comprehends, but is not fluent will have this type of Aphasia.

 

 

Transcortical Motor - very good repetition, poor speech output, and poor auditory comprehension

*Lesion - just outside or at the border of the perisylvian language zone and distribution of middle cerebral artery

9

 

 

This type of aphasia is characterized with very good repetition, fluent, but poor auditory comprehension.

 

 

Transcortical Sensory - very good repetition, fluent, and poor auditory comprehension

*Lesion - border of perisylvian language zone and distribution of middle cerebral artery

10

 

 

If an individual who has very good repetition, but is not fluent and can't comprehend, they are said to have this type of Aphasia.

 

 

Mixed Transcortical - very good repetition, no fluency, and no comprehension

*Lesion - border of perislyvian language zone 

11

 

 

An individual who happens to be fluent, comprehends, and can repeat, but has word finding difficulty is said to have this type of Aphasia.

 

 

Anomic Aphasia - relatively good receptive and expressive, fluent, but has word finding difficulties

*Lesion - Angular Gyrus

*are also very good at circumlocution

12

 

 

Defining description that distinguishes this form of Aphasia from the rest is damage to both the thalamic and basal ganglia.

 

 

Subcortical Aphasia 

13

 

 

The ability to write but can't read

*hint: a = without ; lexis = speech

 

 

Alexia without Agraphia

*Lesion - posterior cerebral artery, left dominant occipital lobe, and splenium (posterior end of corpus callosum)

14

 

 

To have difficulty in reading and writing is said for an individual to have this type of disorder

 

 

Alexia with Agraphia

*Lesion - dominant left inferior parietal lobe, involving the Angular Gyrus

15

 

 

Having difficulty comprehending figurative/nonliteral langauge is not a secondary effect to Right Hemisphere Communication Impairment.

True or False

 

 

 

False- difficulty comprehending figurative/nonliteral language

16

 

 

Difficulty generating and interpreting inferences is a secondry effect of Right Hemisphere Communication Impairment.

True or False

 

 

 

True

17

 

 

Staying on-topic and organized is a secondary effect of Right Hemisphere Communication Impairment.

True or False

 

 

False - going off-topic, disorganized, and egocentric is a secondary effect of Right Hemisphere Communication Impairment.

18

 

 

Aprosodia or difficulty comprehending or producing prosodic aspects of speech is not a secondary effect of Right Hemisphere Communication Impairment.

True or False

 

 

False - it is a secondary effect (will have difficulty in comprehending and producing prosodic aspects of speech)

19

 

 

Attention difficulties is a secondary effect of Right Hemisphere Communication Impairment.

 

 

True

20

 

 

Dementia can be classified as two types.

*hint: on the surface of the "bark" and below the surface of the "bark"

 

 

 

Cortical and Subcortical

21

 

 

Progressive Aphasia has three types:

*hint: N.P.A. / S.D. / L.D.

 

 

 

Nonfluent Progressive Aphasia, Semantic Dementia, and Logopenic Dementia

22

 

 

 

NFPA (Nonfluent Progressive Aphasia) is similar to Broca's Aphasia except for:

 

 

spared single-word comprehension, spared object knowledge 

and 

Lesion - degeneration of inferior frontal gyrus, insula, pre-motor and supplementary motor areas

23

 

 

SD (Semantic Dementia) is a fluent aphasia that is mainly characterized by loss of

*hint: need to be able recall past events

 

 

Semantic Memory

*impaired confrontation naming, single word comprehension, object knowledge, surface dysgraphia, spared repetition, 

24

 

 

LPA (Logopenic Aphasia) is between NFPA and SD in terms of fluency, but a distinguishing feature in that there is a reduction in ___________

 

 

short term phonological memory

*impaired single word-retrieval, impaired repetition, phonologic errors in speech, 

25

 

 

The location of degeneration for NFPA (Nonfluent Progressive Aphasia) starts in...

hint: L.P.F.I

 

 

Left Posterior Fronto-Insular region

*inferior frontal gyrus, insula, pre-motor and supplementary motor areas

26

 

 

The location of degeneration for SD (Semantic Dementia) starts in...

hint: A.T.L.

 

 

Anterior Temporal Lobe

(predominantly the left)

27

 

 

The location of degeneration for LPA (Logopenic Aphasia) starts in ...

hint: L.T.P.

 

 

Left Temporo-Parietal Junction

*posterior temporal, supra-marginal, and angular gyri

28

Label the type of Aphasia based on area of lesion:

A) Broca's Aphasia

B) Wernicke's Aphasia

C) Conduction Aphasia

D) Global Aphasia

E) Transcortical Motor

AB) Anomic Aphasia

1 - A : Broca's Aphasia

2 - B : Wernicke's Aphasia

3 - C: Conduction Aphasia

4 -  D: Global Aphasia

5 -  E: Transcortical Motor

6 - AB: Anomic Aphasia

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