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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (19):
1

Freedmen's Bureau

-Reconstruction agency established in 1865 to protect the legal rights of former slaves and to assist with their education, jobs, health care, and landowning

2

Sharecropping

-type of farm tenancy that developed after the Civil War in which landless workers---often former slaves---farmed land in exchange for farm supplies and a share of crops

3

Crop-Lien System

-merchants extend credit to tenants based on their future crops, but high interest rates and the uncertainties of farming often led to inescapable debts

 

4

Black Codes (1865-1866)

-laws passed in southern states to restrict the rights of former slaves---to nullify the codes, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth Amendment

5

Civil Rights Act of 1866

-along with the 14th amendment, guaranteed the rights of citizenship for former slaves

6

Fourteenth Amendment 1868

-guaranteed rights of citizenship to former slaves, in words similar to those of the Civil Rights Act of 1866

7

Fifteenth Amendment

-constitutional Amendment ratified in 1870, which prohibited states from discriminating in voting privileges on the basis of race

8

Carpetbaggers

-derisive term for northern emigrants who participated in the Republican governments of the Reconstruction South

9

Scalawags

-Southern white Republicans---some former unionists---who supported Reconstruction governments

10

Redeemers

-conservative white Democrats, many of them planters or businessmen who reclaimed control of the South following the end of Reconstruction

11

Black Families

-Once freed, blacks and their families were strengthened and become central to the postemancipation black community

-Former slaves made remarkable efforts to locate loved ones from whom they had been separated under slavery

12

"Swing around the Circle"

-A speaking tour of the North taken by Andrew Johnson to urge voters to elect members of Congress committed to his own Reconstruction program

13

"Waving the Bloody Shirt"

-A tactic of Republicans whereby they identified their opponents with secession and treason

14

Literacy Tests

-A method used to exclude uneducated blacks from voting

15

Bradwell vs. Illinois

-A decision rebuffing the claim that the written legal code and Constitution gave women equal rights

16

Enforcement Acts

-Three acts outlawing terrorist societies and allowing the president to use the army against them

17

Civil Rights Act of 1875

-Outlawed racial discrimination in places of public accommodation like hotels and theaters

18

Slaughterhouse Cases

-A decision that rejected the claim by butchers that their right to equality before the law had been violated

19

Bargain of 1877

-In the aftermath of a close presidential election, an Electoral Commission declared Rutherford B. Hayes president contingent a variety of compromises and agreements upon his taking office