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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Deck (21):

Vertical Integration

-Company's avoidance of middlemen by producing its own supplies and providing for distribution of its own


Standard Oil Company

-Founded in 1870 by John D. Rockefeller in Cleveland, Ohio

-grew into the nation's first industry dominating trust

-Sherman Anti-trust Act 1890 was enacted in part to combat abuses by standard oil


Dawes Act

-law passed in 1887 meant to encourage adoption of white norms among Indians--broke up tribal holdings into small farms for Indian families, with the remainder sold to white purchasers


Interstate Commerce Commission

-Reacting to the US Supreme Court's ruling in Wabash Railroad vs Illinois (1886) Congress established the ICC to curb abuses in the railroad industry by regulating rates


Social Darwinism

-Application of Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection to society

-used the concept of "survival of the fittest" to justify class distinctions and to explain poverty


Lochner vs. New York 1905

-decision by Supreme Court overturning a New York law establishing a limit on the number of hours per week bakers could be compelled to work

-"Lochnerism" became a way of describing the liberty of contract jurisprudence, which opposed all governmental intervention in the economy


Knights of Labor

-founded in 1869, the first national union lasted, under the leadership of Terence V. Powderly, only into the 1890s;  supplanted by the American Federation of Labor



Social Gospel

-preached by liberal Protestant clergymen in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries

-advocated the application of Christian principles to social problems generated by industrialization


Great Upheveal of 1886

-A wave of strikes and labor protests that touched every part of the nation in 1886


Standard Gauge

-A standard distance separating the two tracks adopting in 1886 that allowed for the first time trains of one company to travel on another company's track


Railroad Timezones

-In 1883, the major rail companies divided the national into four time zones still in use today


"Captains of Industry" vs. "Robber Barons"

-Opposing viewpoints that industrial leaders were either beneficial for the economy or wielded power without any accountability in an unregulated market


Signficance of Frontier in American History

-A lecture given by Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893 arguing that the western frontier had forged the distinctive qualities of American culture: individual freedom, political democracy, and economic mobility


Bonanza Farming

-Farms that covered thousands of acres and employed large numbers of agricultural wage workers


Ghost Dance

-A religious revitalization campaign reminiscent of the pan-Indian movements led by earlier prophets



-Paper money declared to be legal tender printed by the government


Civil Service Act of 1883

-Established the Civil Service Commission and marked the end of the spoils system


Patrons of Husbandry

-An educational and social organization for farmers founded in 1867


Iron Law of Supply and Demand

-The economic theory that determined wages and prices for goods and services


Liberty of Contract

-The idea that contracts reconciled freedom and authority in the workplace


Great Railroad Strike of 1877

-Interstate strike, crushed by federal troops, which resulted in extensive property damage and many deaths