chapter 15 Flashcards Preview

Physiology Final > chapter 15 > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 15 Deck (63):
1

Fainting is also known as
A) infarction.
B) eclampsia.
C) reactive hyperemia.
D) vasovagal syncope.
E) orthostatic hypotension.

D) vasovagal syncope.

2

Perfusion is
A) blood flow through an organ.
B) the connection between capillaries and other vessels.
C) delivery of oxygen to cells.
D) the driving force behind blood flow.
E) movement of blood through a shunt.

A) blood flow through an organ.

3

________ are also known as the pressure reservoir of the cardiovascular system.
A) Veins
B) Arteries
C) Arterioles
D) Venules
E) Capillaries

B) Arteries

4

The inner lining of blood vessels is called
A) endoangium.
B) basal lamina.
C) endocardium.
D) endothelium.
E) endostatin

D) endothelium.

5

Smooth muscle is present in the walls of
A) muscular arteries only.
B) arteries only.
C) veins only.
D) all vessel types except capillaries.
E) all vessel types.

D) all vessel types except capillaries.

6

The highly branched contractile cells that regulate capillary permeability are called
A) pericytes.
B) podocytes.
C) epitheliocytes.
D) vascular smooth muscle.
E) endothelial cells.

A) pericytes.

7

Differences between arterioles and metarterioles include the fact that arterioles
A) allow blood to bypass capillary beds.
B) have an endothelial lining.
C) have a continuous smooth muscle layer in their walls and allow blood to bypass capillary
beds.
D) have a continuous smooth muscle layer in their walls.
E) All of the answers are correct.

D) have a continuous smooth muscle layer in their walls.

8

The only blood vessels whose walls permit exchange between the blood and the surrounding
interstitial fluids are the
A) arterioles.
B) capillaries.
C) venules.
D) arterioles and capillaries.
E) venules and capillaries.

E) venules and capillaries.

9

Angiogenesis is
A) an examination of the arteries and veins.
B) surgical restructuring of the coronary arteries.
C) having blood drawn into a tube for tests.
D) the growth of new blood vessels.
E) being able to detect a pulse in arteries.

D) the growth of new blood vessels.

10

Angiostatin and endostatin may be useful in the treatment of
A) hypertension.
B) cancer.
C) hypotension.
D) vasovagal syncope.
E) myocardial infarction.

B) cancer.

11

The values obtained when measuring blood pressure, such as 120/80,
A) exactly match the pressures inside the ventricle during systole and diastole and reflect the
pressure in the major arteries during ventricular systole and diastole.
B) are the same on both the pulmonary and systemic circuits.
C) reflect the pressure in the major arteries during ventricular systole and diastole.
D) exactly match the pressures inside the ventricle during systole and diastole.
E) All of the answers are correct.

C) reflect the pressure in the major arteries during ventricular systole and diastole.

12

Which of the following is occurring during systole?
A) blood pressure increases
B) more stress is placed on arterial walls
C) pulse pressure decreases
D) blood pressure increases and pulse pressure decreases
E) blood pressure increases and more stress is placed on arterial walls

E) blood pressure increases and more stress is placed on arterial walls

13

The mean arterial pressure (MAP) is important because
A) it forces the practitioner to do math, thus they must pay attention to the values obtained.
B) it represents the driving pressure for blood flow and it reflects the difference in time that
systole lasts compared to diastole.
C) it reflects the difference in time that systole lasts compared to diastole.
D) it represents the driving pressure for blood flow.
E) All of the answers are correct.

D) it represents the driving pressure for blood flow.

14

Blood flow to a tissue will increase if the
A) vessels constrict.
B) level of oxygen at the tissue increases.
C) pH rises.
D) level of carbon dioxide at the tissue increases.
E) All of the answers are correct.

D) level of carbon dioxide at the tissue increases.

15

Blood pressure is determined by
A) measuring the degree of turbulence in a closed vessel.
B) measuring the force exerted by blood in a vessel.
C) measuring the pressure in the left ventricle.
D) measuring the size of the pulse pressure.
E) All of the answers are correct.

B) measuring the force exerted by blood in a vessel.

16

The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the
A) pulse pressure.
B) mean arterial pressure.
C) blood pressure.
D) circulatory pressure.
E) systemic pressure.

A) pulse pressure.

17

All of the following would cause an increase in blood pressure EXCEPT
A) a decrease in cardiac output.
B) a decrease in arterial diameter.
C) an increase in arterial resistance.
D) sympathetic stimulation.

A) a decrease in cardiac output.

18

The vessels that are the main site of variable resistance in the circulatory system, and that
contribute more than 60% of the total resistance, are the
A) muscular arteries.
B) arterioles.
C) venules.
D) veins.
E) elastic arteries.

B) arterioles.

19

If cardiac output increases and resistance in arterioles does NOT change, what happens to arterial
blood pressure?
A) decreases
B) increases
C) is unchanged

B) increases

20

Increased blood volume ________ blood pressure.
A) increases
B) decreases
C) has no effect on

A) increases

21

Which organ is NOT part of the cardiovascular system and plays an important role in regulating
blood pressure?
A) kidney
B) spleen
C) lung
D) skin
E) liver

A) kidney

22

The matching of blood flow to the changing metabolic needs of a tissue is due to
A) local control.
B) hormonal control.
C) neural control.

A) local control.

23

Myogenic autoregulation means that
A) stretched smooth muscle in a blood vessel constricts reflexively.
B) increased blood pressure in a vessel triggers relaxation in that vessel and blood vessel
diameter is adjusted by centers in the brain through monitoring blood pressure in areas
throughout the body.
C) increased blood pressure in a vessel triggers relaxation in that vessel.
D) blood vessel diameter is adjusted by centers in the brain through monitoring blood pressure
in areas throughout the body. E) stretched smooth muscle in a blood vessel constricts reflexively and blood vessel diameter is
adjusted by centers in the brain through monitoring blood pressure in areas throughout the
body.

A) stretched smooth muscle in a blood vessel constricts reflexively.

24

Each of the following paracrines may cause vasodilation EXCEPT
A) nitric oxide.
B) K+.
C) CO2.
D) H+ ions from metabolic acids.
E) Ca2+.

E) Ca2+.

25

Reactive hyperemia is
A) increased blood pressure after stress.
B) reflex contraction of smooth muscle in response to stress.
C) increased blood flow following a period of reduced blood flow.
D) lack of blood flow due to an allergic reaction.
E) None of the answers are correct.

C) increased blood flow following a period of reduced blood flow.

26

Reactive hyperemia is triggered by
A) local accumulation of paracrines due to reduced blood flow.
B) reflex contraction of smooth muscle following a period of dilation.
C) toxins or allergens, such as bee venom or pollen.
D) stress and the hormones released during stress.
E) None of the answers are correct.

A) local accumulation of paracrines due to reduced blood flow.

27

The elevated blood pressure that sometimes accompanies pregnancy is known as
A) infarction.
B) preeclampsia.
C) reactive hyperemia.
D) vasovagal syncope.
E) orthostatic hypotension.

B) preeclampsia.

28

In order to cause vasodilation of most vascular smooth muscle,
A) acetylcholine combines with muscarinic receptors.
B) norepinephrine combines with B1 receptors.
C) norepinephrine combines with alpha receptors.
D) sympathetic stimulation is removed.
E) acetylcholine combines with nicotinic receptors

D) sympathetic stimulation is removed.

29

Several blood-borne chemicals affect the lumen size of arterioles. Which are NOT paired correctly?
A) kinins--vasodilation
B) serotonin--vasodilation
C) sumatriptan--vasoconstriction
D) epinephrine--vasoconstriction with alpha receptors
E) histamine--vasodilation

B) serotonin--vasodilation

30

________ capillaries are very porous and allow high volumes of fluids to pass through them,
whereas ________ capillaries consist of more tightly joined cells that allow a high degree of
selective materials to pass.
A) Transcytotic, fenestrated
B) Transcytotic, continuous
C) Continuous, fenestrated
D) Fenestrated, transcytotic
E) Fenestrated, continuous

E) Fenestrated, continuous

31

Sinusoids are modified vessels that replace ________ in some tissues.
A) veins
B) arteries
C) capillaries

C) capillaries

32

Compared to arteries, the velocity of flow of the blood through the capillaries is
A) at least 10 times faster.
B) about the same.
C) at least twice as fast.
D) much slower.
E) impossible to predict without more information.

D) much slower.

33

Restoring lost fluid from the capillaries back to the circulatory system is one of the major functions
of the ________ system.
A) thirst-quenching
B) digestive
C) immune
D) urinary
E) lymphatic

E) lymphatic

34

Osmotic pressure resulting from presence of plasma proteins in blood is called ________ pressure.
A) hydrostatic
B) colloid osmotic
C) oncotic
D) oncotic and colloid osmotic
E) colloid osmotic and hydrostatic

D) oncotic and colloid osmotic

35

A parasitic condition resulting in extreme enlargement of one or both legs is called
A) elephantosis.
B) ascites.
C) elephantitis.
D) elephantiasis.

D) elephantiasis.

36

The integrating center for neural control of blood pressure resides in the
A) hypothalamus.
B) medulla oblongata.
C) pons variolli.
D) cerebellum.
E) cerebrum.

B) medulla oblongata.

37

Stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors known as ________ are located in some artery walls.
A) elasticeptors
B) chemoreceptors
C) nociceptors
D) baroreceptors

D) baroreceptors

38

Blood pressure and flow to the brain are monitored by receptors located in the wall of the
A) venae cavae.
B) cerebral arteries.
C) carotid artery.
D) aorta.
E) cephalic arteries.

C) carotid artery.

39

When blood pressure is normal, the receptors in arterial walls fire action potentials
A) very seldom.
B) continuously.

B) continuously.

40

When blood pressure receptors sense a loss of blood pressure, they ________ their firing rate.
A) decrease
B) increase

A) decrease

41

Blood pressure and cardiac output can be altered according to
A) blood oxygen levels.
B) body temperature.
C) emotional responses.
D) body temperature and emotional responses.
E) body temperature, emotional responses, and blood oxygen levels.

E) body temperature, emotional responses, and blood oxygen levels.

42

When the baroreceptor reflex is triggered by a decline in blood pressure,
A) cardiac output increases.
B) sympathetic activity increases.
C) peripheral resistance decreases.
D) sympathetic activity increases and cardiac output increases.
E) sympathetic activity increases, cardiac output increases, and peripheral resistance decreases.

D) sympathetic activity increases and cardiac output increases.

43

Due to the differences in opposing forces, there is net ________ occurring at the arteriolar end of
most capillaries, coupled with net ________ at the venous end.
A) absorption, filtration
B) filtration, absorption

B) filtration, absorption

44

If a person is bedridden for several days, the baroreceptor reflex may fail upon standing. Why?
A) Blood pools in the feet and legs.
B) Blood pools in the feet and legs and there is reduced blood flow to the brain.
C) There is reduced blood flow to the brain.
D) The kidneys have reduced the blood volume.
E) All of the statements are correct.

D) The kidneys have reduced the blood volume.

45

Which of these does NOT increase the risk for cardiovascular disease?
A) being a male over 30 but under 55
B) having a sister with coronary artery disease
C) being a female over 30 but under 55
D) menopause without estrogen replacement therapy
E) having diabetes mellitus

C) being a female over 30 but under 55

46

For a diagnosis of hypertension, a patient must have
A) a diastolic pressure above 90 mm Hg.
B) a diastolic pressure below 80 mm Hg.
C) a systolic pressure above 140 mm Hg.
D) a systolic pressure above 120 mm Hg.
E) a systolic pressure above 140 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure above 90 mm Hg.

E) a systolic pressure above 140 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure above 90 mm Hg.

47

Compensation for decreased blood volume includes increases in
A) water conservation by the kidneys.
B) sympathetic stimulation to blood vessels.
C) sympathetic stimulation of the heart.
D) sympathetic stimulation to blood vessels and water conservation by the kidneys.
E) sympathetic stimulation to blood vessels, sympathetic stimulation of the heart, and water
conservation by the kidneys.

E) sympathetic stimulation to blood vessels, sympathetic stimulation of the heart, and water
conservation by the kidneys.

48

Fenestrated capillaries are present in
A) skin.
B) the spleen.
C) the liver.
D) skeletal muscles.
E) cardiac muscle

C) the liver.

49

Regarding the cardiovascular system, the main role(s) of the kidneys is/are to
A) restore lost fluid to the blood and therefore raise blood pressure.
B) restore lost fluid to the blood and therefore raise blood pressure and minimize fluid loss from
the blood and therefore maintain blood pressure.
C) minimize fluid loss from the blood and therefore maintain blood pressure.
D) reduce blood volume and therefore reduce blood pressure.
E) minimize fluid loss from the blood and therefore maintain blood pressure and reduce blood
volume and therefore reduce blood pressure.

E) minimize fluid loss from the blood and therefore maintain blood pressure and reduce blood
volume and therefore reduce blood pressure.

50

Which of the following conditions would have the greatest effect on peripheral resistance?
A) doubling the diameter of a vessel
B) doubling the number of white cells in the blood
C) doubling the length of a vessel
D) doubling the turbulence of the blood
E) doubling the viscosity of the blood

A) doubling the diameter of a vessel

51

Each of the following factors would increase peripheral resistance EXCEPT one. Identify the
exception.
A) increased sympathetic stimulation
B) vasodilation
C) elevated levels of epinephrine
D) factors that cause increased hematocrit
E) irregularities in the vessel walls caused by plaques

B) vasodilation

52

If a person has a blood pressure of 120/80, her mean arterial pressure would be
A) 80 mm Hg.
B) 40 mm Hg.
C) 100 mm Hg.
D) 200 mm Hg.
E) 93 mm Hg.

E) 93 mm Hg.

53

The lymphatic system
A) can be removed without health consequences.
B) stores blood when circulatory demand is low.
C) has heart-like pumps called lymph nodes.
D) empties the lymph vessels into the veins near the clavicles.
E) All of the answers are correct.

D) empties the lymph vessels into the veins near the clavicles.

54

The cardiovascular control center in the brain can directly cause
A) the heart rate to increase or decrease.
B) arterioles to dilate or constrict.
C) arterioles to dilate or constrict and the heart rate to increase or decrease.
D) the contractility of the heart to increase or decrease.
E) All of the answers are correct.

C) arterioles to dilate or constrict and the heart rate to increase or decrease.

55

Malnutrition can cause edema because
A) interstitial protein levels are lower than plasma protein levels.
B) the resulting anemia increases blood pressure.
C) there are not enough nutrients for plasma protein synthesis.
D) there are not enough nutrients for plasma protein synthesis and interstitial protein levels are
lower than plasma protein levels.
E) All of the answers are correct.

C) there are not enough nutrients for plasma protein synthesis.

56

The continual movement of fluid through the interstitial space functions to
A) help carry toxins and bacteria to cells of the immune system.
B) flush hormones and wastes from the interstitial space.
C) assist the transport of insoluble substances that cannot enter the capillaries.
D) accelerate the distribution of nutrients and hormones.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

57

Edema is likely to occur when
A) blood hydraulic pressure at the capillary decreases.
B) the heart becomes an insufficient pump.
C) hemorrhage occurs.
D) the concentration of protein in the blood increases.
E) the blood hydraulic pressure in a capillary is equal to the blood osmotic pressure.

B) the heart becomes an insufficient pump.

58

Which of the following is greater?
A) blood pressure when sympathetic stimulation to the heart increases
B) blood pressure when parasympathetic stimulation to the heart increases

A) blood pressure when sympathetic stimulation to the heart increases

59

Which of the following is greater?
A) heart rate normally
B) heart rate during circulatory shock

B) heart rate during circulatory shock

60

Which of the following is/are (a) possible treatment(s) for hypertension?
A) chloride leak channel blockers
B) ACE inhibitors
C) calcium channel blockers
D) ANP blockers
E) calcium channel blockers and ACE inhibitors

E) calcium channel blockers and ACE inhibitors

61

Which of the following is greater?
A) blood pressure when the peripheral vessels dilate
B) blood pressure when the peripheral vessels constrict

B) blood pressure when the peripheral vessels constrict

62

Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood will result in
A) decreased blood flow to the lungs.
B) decreased parasympathetic stimulation of the heart.
C) decreased heart rate.
D) decreased cardiac output.
E) All of the answers are correct.

B) decreased parasympathetic stimulation of the heart.

63

Tom suffers from hypertension (high blood pressure). Which of the following might help deal with
his problem? A drug that
A) stimulates cAMP formation in cardiac muscle tissue.
B) blocks muscarinic receptors in cardiac muscle tissue.
C) blocks a2 receptors in cardiac muscle tissue.
D) blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue.
E) stimulates a1 receptors in cardiac muscle tissue.

D) blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue.