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Flashcards in chapter 17 Deck (48):
1

Which is NOT considered to be a primary function of the respiratory system?
A) protection against pathogens
B) gas exchange
C) vocalization
D) regulation of pH balance
E) regulation of water balance

E) regulation of water balance

2

Ventilation is also known as
A) expiration.
B) blowing.
C) air conduction.
D) breathing.
E) inspiration.

D) breathing.

3

The upper respiratory tract includes all EXCEPT which of the following?
A) mouth
B) trachea
C) lungs
D) nasal cavity
E) larynx

C) lungs

4

The lower respiratory tract includes
A) all of the bronchial branches.
B) only the trachea.
C) only the lungs.
D) all of the bronchial branches and the lungs.
E) all of the bronchial branches, the lungs, and the trachea.

D) all of the bronchial branches and the lungs.

5

Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
A) utilization of oxygen.
B) movement of air into and out of the lungs.
C) movement of dissolved gases from the interstitial space to the cells.
D) movement of dissolved gases from the alveoli to the blood.
E) movement of dissolved gases from the blood to the interstitial space.

B) movement of air into and out of the lungs.

6

Alveolar ventilation refers to the
A) utilization of oxygen by alveolar cells to support metabolism.
B) movement of dissolved gases from the blood to the alveoli.
C) movement of air into and out of the alveoli.
D) movement of dissolved gases from the alveoli to the blood.
E) movement of air into and out of the lungs.

C) movement of air into and out of the alveoli.

7

The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are
A) bronchioles.
B) pleural spaces.
C) alveolar ducts.
D) terminal sacs.
E) alveoli.

E) alveoli.

8

Place the following structures of the respiratory tree in the order in which air passes through them.
1. secondary bronchi
2. bronchioles
3. primary bronchi
4. alveoli
5. terminal bronchioles
A) 4, 1, 2, 3, 5
B) 3, 1, 5, 2, 4
C) 3, 1, 2, 5, 4
D) 1, 3, 5, 2, 4
E) 1, 3, 2, 5, 4

C) 3, 1, 2, 5, 4

9

The airway between the larynx and the primary bronchi is the
A) alveolar duct.
B) pharynx.
C) bronchiole.
D) laryngeal duct.
E) trachea.

E) trachea.

10

The lungs are enclosed in ________ membranes.
A) pulmonary
B) thoracic
C) pleural
D) pericardial
E) costal

C) pleural

11

The lungs are located in the ________ cavity.
A) thoracic
B) pericardial
C) pleural
D) pulmonary
E) costal

A) thoracic

12

Pressure and volume of gas in a container are related to temperature and number of gas molecules.
This is known as ________ law.
A) Henry's
B) Boyle's
C) the ideal gas
D) Ohm's
E) Dalton's

C) the ideal gas

13

Type II alveolar cells
A) are phagocytic.
B) secrete a chemical known as surfactant.
C) allow rapid diffusion of gases through their thin membranes, secrete a chemical known as
surfactant, and are phagocytic.
D) allow rapid diffusion of gases through their thin membranes.
E) None of the statements are true.

B) secrete a chemical known as surfactant.

14

Type I alveolar cells
A) allow rapid diffusion of gases through their thin membranes.
B) are phagocytic.
C) allow rapid diffusion of gases through their thin membranes, secrete a chemical known as
surfactant, and are phagocytic.
D) secrete a chemical known as surfactant.
E) None of the statements are true.

A) allow rapid diffusion of gases through their thin membranes.

15

Which of the following features of the alveolar sacs allows for the ease of diffusion of gasses?
A) Type II alveolar cells secrete surfactant.
B) They are made of a single layer of simple squamous epithelium and elastin fibers allow the
alveoli to stretch thin enough for diffusion to occur.
C) Elastin fibers allow the alveoli to stretch thin enough for diffusion to occur.
D) They are made of a single layer of simple squamous epithelium.

D) They are made of a single layer of simple squamous epithelium.

16

Surfactant
A) is not found in healthy lung tissue.
B) helps prevent the alveoli from collapsing.
C) replaces mucus in the alveoli.
D) phagocytizes small particulate matter.
E) protects the surface of the lungs.

B) helps prevent the alveoli from collapsing.

17

The common passageway shared by the respiratory and digestive systems is the
A) pharynx.
B) vestibule.
C) larynx.
D) glottis.
E) esophagus

A) pharynx.

18

When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
A) the volume of the thorax decreases.
B) the volume of the thorax increases.
C) expiration occurs.
D) the volume of the lungs decreases.
E) the lungs collapse.

B) the volume of the thorax increases.

19

Dalton's law states that
A) in a mixture of gases like air, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures
of the gases in the mixture.
B) gas volume and pressure are inversely proportional.
C) the volume of gas that will dissolve in a solvent is proportional to the solubility of the gas and
the gas pressure.
D) gas volume and temperature are directly proportional.
E) None of the answers are correct.

A) in a mixture of gases like air, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures

20

Air moves into the lungs because
A) contraction of the diaphragm decreases the volume of the pleural cavity.
B) the gas pressure in the lungs is less than outside pressure.
C) the thorax is muscular.
D) the volume of the lungs decreases with inspiration.
E) All of the answers are correct.

B) the gas pressure in the lungs is less than outside pressure.

21

Air moves out of the lungs because
A) contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the pleural cavity.
B) the thorax is muscular.
C) the gas pressure in the lungs is less than outside pressure.
D) the volume of the lungs decreases with expiration.
`E) All of the answers are correct.

D) the volume of the lungs decreases with expiration.

22

In quiet breathing,
A) inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive.
B) inspiration and expiration are both passive processes.
C) inspiration is passive and expiration involves muscular contractions.
D) inspiration and expiration involve muscular contractions.
E) None of the answers are correct.

A) inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive.

23

Boyle's law states that gas volume is
A) inversely proportional to pressure.
B) directly proportional to pressure.
C) inversely proportional to temperature.
D) directly proportional to temperature.
E) None of the answers are correct.

A) inversely proportional to pressure.

24

Air entering the body is filtered, warmed, and humidified by the
A) alveoli.
B) upper respiratory tract.
C) lower respiratory tract.
D) lungs.
E) All of the answers are correct.

B) upper respiratory tract.

25

A typical value for intrapleural pressure is ________ mm Hg.
A) +6
B) -3
C) -6
D) +3
E) 0

B) -3

26

According to the law of LaPlace, when comparing two alveoli lined with fluid, pressure in the one
with the ________ diameter will be greater.
A) smaller
B) larger

A) smaller

27

27) When alveolar pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure, air flows into the lungs.
A) True
B) False

B) False

28

Active expiration is produced by contraction of
A) external intercostals only.
B) abdominal muscles only.
C) diaphragm only.
D) internal intercostals only.
E) abdominal muscles and internal intercostals.

E) abdominal muscles and internal intercostals.

29

When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
A) intrapleural pressure decreases.
B) the volume of the lungs decreases.
C) expiration occurs.
D) intrapulmonary pressure increases.
E) All of the answers are correct.

A) intrapleural pressure decreases.

30

If a student inhales as deeply as possible and then blows the air out until he cannot exhale any
more, the amount of air that he expelled is his
A) vital capacity.
B) expiratory reserve volume.
C) tidal volume.
D) minimal volume.
E) inspiratory reserve volume

A) vital capacity.

31

Total cross-sectional area ________ with each division of the airways.
A) decreases
B) increases
C) does not change

B) increases

32

Blood vessels cover approximately ________% of the alveolar surface.
A) 10-20
B) > 90
C) 50
D) < 10
E) 80-90

E) 80-90

33

In the lungs, the
A) blood flow rate and the blood pressure are the same as in other tissues.
B) blood flow rate is higher and the blood pressure is higher, respectively, than the blood flow
rate and the blood pressure in other tissues.
C) blood flow rate is lower and the blood pressure is lower, respectively, than the blood flow
rate and the blood pressure in other tissues.
D) blood flow rate is lower and the blood pressure is higher, respectively, than the blood flow
rate and the blood pressure in other tissues.
E) blood flow rate is higher and the blood pressure is lower, respectively, than the blood flow
rate and the blood pressure in other tissues.

E) blood flow rate is higher and the blood pressure is lower, respectively, than the blood flow
rate and the blood pressure in other tissues.

34

The distance between the alveolar airspace and capillary endothelium is ________, allowing gases
to diffuse ________ between them.
A) long, slowly
B) short, slowly
C) long, rapidly
D) short, rapidly
E) None of the answers are correct - distance does not affect diffusion rate.

D) short, rapidly

35

Flow of air
A) is directly proportional to the resistance, and flow increases as the resistance of the system
increases.
B) is directly proportional to the resistance, and flow decreases as the pressure of the system
increases.
C) is directly proportional to a pressure gradient, and flow increases as the resistance of the
system increases.
D) is directly proportional to a pressure gradient, and flow decreases as the resistance of the
system increases.
E) None of the answers are correct.

D) is directly proportional to a pressure gradient, and flow decreases as the resistance of the
system increases.

36

An increase in PCO2 would cause
A) the bronchioles to dilate and the systemic arterioles to dilate.
B) the bronchioles to dilate and the systemic arterioles to constrict.
C) the bronchioles to constrict and the systemic arterioles to constrict.
D) the bronchioles to constrict and the systemic arterioles to dilate.
E) None of the answers are correct.

A) the bronchioles to dilate and the systemic arterioles to dilate.

37

Chronic inhalation of fine particles that reach the alveoli leads to ________ lung disease.
A) obstructive
B) fibrotic
C) compliant
D) restrictive
E) congestive

B) fibrotic

38

Poiseuille's law is summarized this way.
A) P1V1 = P2V2
B) P = 2T/r
C) R Ln/ r4
D) PV = nRT

A) P1V1 = P2V2

39

Histamine's primary role in the respiratory system is as a
A) bronchoconstrictor.
B) bronchodilator.
C) vasodilator.
D) vasoconstrictor.
E) surfactant.

A) bronchoconstrictor.

40

During normal expiration,
A) elastic recoil of stretched muscles helps return the thorax to its resting volume and the
internal intercostal muscles are required.
B) the internal intercostal muscles are required.
C) elastic recoil of stretched muscles helps return the thorax to its resting volume.
D) the abdominal muscles become involved.
E) elastic recoil of stretched muscles helps return the thorax to its resting volume, the internal
intercostal muscles are required, and the abdominal muscles become involved.

C) elastic recoil of stretched muscles helps return the thorax to its resting volume.

41

Damage to the type II cells of the lungs would contribute to
A) a thickening of the respiratory membrane.
B) alveolar rupture.
C) alveolar collapse.
D) an increased rate of gas exchange.
E) decreased surface tension in the water lining the alveoli.

C) alveolar collapse.

42

Harry suffers from cystic fibrosis and frequently has periods where he can hardly breathe. The
problem is the result of
A) thick secretions that exceed the ability of the mucus elevator to transport them.
B) collapse of one or both lungs.
C) laryngospasms that occur in response to a toxic substance produced by the epithelial cells.
D) constriction of the trachea.
E) inflammation of the bronchi.

A) thick secretions that exceed the ability of the mucus elevator to transport them.

43

Breathing that involves active inspiratory and expiratory movements is called
A) hyperpnea.
B) eupnea.
C) diaphragmatic breathing.
D) shallow breathing.
E) costal breathing.

A) hyperpnea.

44

The respiratory rate times the tidal volume corrected for dead space is the
A) alveolar ventilation rate.
B) external respiration rate.
C) vital capacity.
D) respiratory minute volume.
E) pulmonary ventilation rate.

A) alveolar ventilation rate.

45

Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will
A) decrease the rate of oxygen diffusion from the alveoli to the blood.
B) increase the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli.
C) increase the partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli.
D) decrease the rate of carbon dioxide diffusion from the blood to the alveoli.
E) have no effect on either the partial pressure or diffusion rate of gases.

C) increase the partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli.

46

In the lungs, an example of the body's reserve capacity is that
A) pulmonary blood flow is completely under the control of the autonomic nervous system,
dilating arteries and arterioles to adjust blood flow.
B) some areas of the lung can be closed off during rest and opened again when needed during
exercise.
C) capillary beds in the lungs are reversibly collapsible, allowing blood to be shunted to
additional areas during exercise.
D) All of the statements are true.
E) None of the statements are true.

C) capillary beds in the lungs are reversibly collapsible, allowing blood to be shunted to
additional areas during exercise.

47

Joe is playing in an intramural football game when he is tackled so hard that he breaks a rib. He can
actually feel a piece of the rib sticking through the skin, and he is having a difficult time breathing.
Joe probably is suffering from
A) an obstruction in the bronchi.
B) a collapsed trachea.
C) a bruised diaphragm.
D) a pneumothorax.
E) decreased surfactant production.

D) a pneumothorax.

48

In a condition known as pleurisy, there is excess fluid in the pleural space. How would you expect
this to affect the process of pulmonary ventilation?
A) More air would be forced out during expiration.
B) Tidal volume would increase.
C) Breathing would be labored and difficult.
D) Ventilation would require less energy.
E) It would be easier to expand the lungs on inspiration.

C) Breathing would be labored and difficult.