Chapter 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Deck (35):
1

Environmental unpredictability model, why does it favor sexual reproduction?

Sexual reproduction should be seen more often in rapidly changing environment; offers great deal of variation allowing for better adaptability to unpredictable environments

2

Number of niches, why does it favor sexual reproduction?

S.R. will be favored in niche-rich environments because of the potential for large numbers of new genotypes capable of colonizing new niches
-lakes have greater # of eco-niches

3

Red Queen Hypothesis

Frequency of S.R. will be related to the level of PARASITIC infection. Sexual reproduction creates a moving target for parasites= parasite resistant genotypes may result

4

Asexual reproduction

Production of offspring from unfertilized gametes from a single female parent

5

Apomixis

Unfertilized gamete undergoes a single mitosis-like cell division, producing two "daughter cells". Each daughter cell has an UNREDUCED number of chromosomes and is genetically identical to its mother

6

Automixis

Haploid gametes produced via MEIOSIS but diploidy is usually restored by the fusion of haploid nuclei from the same meiosis. Offspring is genetically different from parent and siblings, but MUCH LESS than sexual reproduction.

7

Sexual reproduction

The joining together of genetic material from 2 parents to produce an offspring that has genes from each parent

8

Amphimixis

characterizes sexual reproduction; but with alternating phases of meiosis and gamete fusion

9

Syngamy

alternating phases of meiosis and gamete fusion

10

Recombination

The crossover between homologous chromosomes, which produce new chomosomal events

11

Gametes production

The production of haploid gametes by diploid individuals via reductive meiotic division

12

Gamete fusion

The gametic exchange between (usually) UNRELATED individuals, in which haploid gametes fuse to produce a diploid offspring

13

Does genetic exchange in bacteria constitute as sexual reproduction?

NO

14

How do you distinguish between sexual and asexual reproduction?

Observing genetics (presence/ absence of reproductive genes like homologs) &
Comparing phylogenetic trees (asexual will have a more congruent tree when comparing nuclear and mt genes)

15

Asexual reproducing species tend to go extinct more quickly or less quickly than sexual species?

More quickly!

16

Are there a lot of taxa (genus or higher) that are entirely composed of Asexual species?

Almost none.

17

Where have all asexual species thought to have evolved from?

Sexually reproducing ancestors

18

What is the genetic cost of asexual reproduction?

Asexual females are twice as genetically related to their offspring as are sexual females

19

What is the advantage of asexual repro?

Population in ASR increases twice as quick, as a consequence of anisogamy

20

Anisogamy

When female produces TWO LARGE gametes & males reproduce a lot of small sperm. (male's effort is basically wasted)

21

Isogamy

Each parent produces mid-sized gametes

22

How is asexual more "expensive"

Twofold cost of sex (cost of males)

23

How can sexual reproduction come at a cost?

Can break up favorable gene combinations (recombination)

24

Benefits of sexual reproduction (3)?

-Can purge deleterious mutations
-Generates genetic variation that is favored by natural selection
-Combination of both

25

Muller's ratchet

Number of deleterious mutations will INCREASE; not equivalent to a deleterious mutation becoming fixed

*sexual reproduction reverses ratchet*

26

Two facts on Y chromosome

-Doesn't undergo recombination
-Has been degenerating and accumulating deleterious mutations

27

Epistasis

Interactions between the effects of alleles at different loci

28

Synergistic mutations

Two mutations occurring together have more of a detrimental effect

29

Fisher-Muller Hypothesis

Recombination allows natural selection to operate at a quicker rate than is possible in asexual species

30

Linkage disequilibrium

If two genes are in linkage disequilibrium, it means that certain alleles of each gene are inherited together more often than would be expected by chance. (This may be due to actual genetic linkage--that is the genes are closely located on the same chromosome.)
*sex breaks down link-disequi.*

31

What is the evidence that sex accelerates adaptive evolution?

Yeast and green algae; in a harsh environment, sexual strains increase in fitness faster than do asexual strains

32

"bet hedging"

Increases the chance that at least one of an individual's offspring will be a good match to the environment.

33

Cyclical parthogenesis

Usually reproduce asexually, but occasionally reproduce sexually

34

What is the hypothesis on the origin for sexual reproduction?

Means for transposable genetic elements to spread from cell to cell.
Also, mechanism for DNA repair

35

transposable genetic elements

is a DNA sequence that can change its position within the genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genome size