Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (29):
Even if philosophers accept and study the importance of change, a full theory of evolution by natural selection cannot exist without
realizing the vast expanses of time over which some changes take place
Archbishop James Ussher calculated the age of Earth based on the Old Testament. He estimated that the creation of the world took place
On exactly October 23, 4004 B.C.
Jame Hutton, a Scottish geologist and naturalist, argued that the geological process of erosion and sedimentation suggested that the world was created
an inconceivably long time ago
Building on the ideas first proposed by Hutton, Lyell aimed to explain Earth's geological features using an approach known as uniformitarianism, which depends on
B and C:
the same geological processes currently observable & geological processes operating over very long periods of time
Which of the following examples best illustrates the concept of spontaneous generation?
During flooding, frogs spontaneously arise from mud
Early Greek philosophers were among the first to
A and C:
develop a philosophy of a natural world driven by physical laws &
explain the world around them according to fixed laws of nature
Early Greek philosophers failed to exploit one of the greatest advantages of methodological naturalism, which is that explanations can
be tested through observation and sometimes manipulation
The approach known as catastrophism explains Earth's geological features appealing to
A and B:
sudden catastrophic geological events & large-scale geological events
Unlike those before him, Aristotle
recognized the significance of testing one's hypotheses
Greek philosophers, including Aristotle, developed a keen appreciation for the study of natural history. Which of the following contributions to the study of natural history did Aristotle make?
All of the above:
His book, Physics and Natural History of Animals; Distinguishing among 500 species of birds, mammals, and fishes; Proposing a taxonomy of nature- a classification system of life
After Aristotle, one advance in scientific methodology came through the use of logic. This allowed thinkers to
move carefully from facts to general principles
Which of the following concepts was a commonality of early Greek theories?
Robert Chambers, a Scottish geologist and author of Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, is often overlooked for which very important contribution?
Thinking of evolution in terms of populations not individuals
Despite his insights, Erasmus Darwin came up short of a full-blown theory of evolution by natural selection because
He believed in Lamarck's theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics
Charles Darwin's grandfather Erasmus Darwin, an English physician and philosopher,
Argued that all life developed from what he called a single living filament; wrote a book called Zoonomia; argued that humans descended from another primate species and once walked on all fours
Lamarck's hypothesis that traits acquired during the lifetime of an individual are passed on to progeny
Was interesting, reasonable, and based on an idea that was accepted by many scientists and non scientists alike; connected evolutionary change to environmental fit
The rediscovery in 1900 of Mendel's now famous experiments from the 1850's and 1860's initially
Added fuel to the argument about whether natural selection acted in a slow way on small genetic changes, or in a sudden, saltational manner
In the 1800s, experimental work by August Weisman demonstrated that traits acquired during a lifetime could not be inherited. This dealt with a deathblow to previous theories of Lamarckian inheritance and left scientists with which of the following possible processes of evolution?
Sudden, large changes; slow acting natural selection; saltationism
While various religious leaders challenged almost all of Darwin's major conclusions,
Many British scientists embraced Darwin's ideas on evolution; many British scientists rejected Darwin's proposed mechanism of natural selection
Darwin faced which of the following major challenges to his theory
Accounting for complex structure with multiple intricate parts; explaining traits and organs of seemingly little importance; and understanding why natural selection does not exhaust the genetic variation in a population
Both Wallace and Darwin traveled extensively and were struck by the strong patterns they observed in the geographic distribution of nature's diversity. Which of the following observations were made by Wallace?
Highly similar species are clustered in time and space; Geographic features seem to play an important role in the clustering of similar, closely related species.
Darwin's hypothesis of common ancestry with branching descent explains
the hierarchical patters of similarity observed in nature; varieties nested within species, nesting within genera; the history and pattern of life's diversity
Darwin's tree of life metaphor
linked species in varying degrees of similarity according to their historical pattern of descent; described the branching historical relationships among all living things; applies to both the history and pattern of life's diversity
Darwin drew on the work of Thomas Malthus, a political economist, to convince his readers that
there is a competition for limited resources in nature; many individuals in a population do not survive to the age of reproduction; only a fraction of the surviving individuals in a population reproduce
Two important differences between the processes of natural selection and artificial selection are
the selective agent and the traits being selected
To explain how varieties were on the path to becoming new species, Darwin introduced the concept of
descent and modification
What were Darwin's two fundamental insights about the process of evolution?
The environment selects on variation in the traits of individual organisms; and all species have descended from one or a few common ancestors
Francesco Redi's experiment, addressed the question of whether flies spontaneously generated from meat carcasses. Which of the following statements regarding this experiment is true?
Meat in jars with an open lid developed maggots & ; Meat in lidded jars did not develop maggots