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Erikson's stage for middle adulthood

generativity versus stagnation
-generativity: desire to leave legacies to the next generation


contemporary life-events approach

emphasizes that how a life event influences the individual's development depends not only on the life event, but also on mediating factors, the individual's adaptation to the life event, the life-stage context, and the sociohistorical contex



the view that when men experiences stress, they are more likely to engage in a fight-or-flight pattern, as reflected in being aggressive, withdrawing from social contact, or drinking alcohol



the view that when women experience stress, they are more likely to engage in a tend-and-befriend pattern, seeking social alliances with others, especially female friends


social clock

the timetable according to which individuals are expected to accomplish life's tasks, such as getting married, having children, or establishing themselves in a career


big five factors of personality

-emotional stability (neuroticism)
-openness to experience


cumulative personality model of personality development

with time and age, people become more adept at interacting with their environment in ways that promote increased stability of personality


empty nest syndrome

a decrease in marital satisfaction that occurs after children leave home, because parents derive considerable satisfaction from their children