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Flashcards in chapter 18 Deck (18)
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1

cognitive mechanics

the "hardware" of the mind, reflecting the neurophysiological architecture of the brain; involve the speed and accuracy of the processes involving sensory input, visual and motor memory, discrimination, comparison, and categorization

2

cognitive pragmatics

the culture-based "software programs" of the mind; include reading and writing skills, language comprehension, educational qualifications, professional skills, and the type of knowledge about the self and life skills that help us to master life

3

selective attention

focusing on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant while ignoring others that are irrelevant

4

divided attention

concentrating on more than one activity at the same time

5

sustained attention

focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment

6

executive attention

aspects of thinking that involve planning actions, allocating attention to goals, detection and compensating for error, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances

7

explicit memory

memory of facts and experiences that individuals consciously know and can state

8

implicit memory

memory without conscious recollection; involves skills and routine procedures the are automatically performed

9

episodic memory

the retention of information about the where and when of life's happenings

10

semantic memory

a person's knowledge about the world – including one's field of expertise, general academic knowledge of the sort learned in school, and "everyday knowledge"

11

source memory

the ability to remember where one learned something

12

prospective memory

remembering to do something in the future

13

wisdom

expert knowledge about the practical aspects of life that permits excellent judgment about important matters

14

terminal decline

cognitive functioning may be more linked to distance from each or cognition-related pathology than to distance from birth

15

major depression

a mood disorder in which the individual is deeply unhappy, demoralized, self-deragotory, and bored

16

dementia

a global term for any neurological disorder in which the primary symptoms include a deterioration of mental functioning

17

Alzheimer disease

a progressive, irreversible brain disorder characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and eventually, physical function

18

Parkinson disease

a chronic, progressive disease characterized by muscle tremors, slowing of movement, and partial facial paralysis