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Flashcards in chapter 17 Deck (15)
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1

life span

the maximum number of years an individual can live; about 120 to 125 years of age

2

life expectancy

the number of years that will probably be lived by the average person born in a particular year

3

factors for longevity

-diet
-low-stress lifestyle
-caring community
-activity
-spirituality

4

evolutionary theory of aging

natural selection has not eliminated many harmful conditions and nonadaptive characteristics in older adults; thus, the benefits conferred by evolution decline with age because natural selection is linked to reproductive fitness

5

cellular clock theory

the maximum number of times that humans cells can divide is about 75 to 80; as we age, our cells have less capacity to divide

6

free-radical theory

people age because normal metabolic processes within cells produce unstable oxygen molecules known as free radicles; these molecules ricochet around inside cells, damaging DNA and other cellular structures

7

mitochondrial theory

aging is caused by the decay of mitochondria, tiny cellular bodies that supply energy for function, growth, and repair

8

hormonal stress theory

aging in the body's hormonal system can decrease resistance to stress and increase the likelihood of disease

9

neurogenesis

the generation of new neurons

10

cataracts

a thickening of the lens of the eye that causes vision to become cloudy, opaque, and distorted

11

glaucoma

damage to the optic nerve because of the pressure created by a buildup of fluid in the eye

12

macular degeneration

a disease that involves deterioration of the macula of the retina, which corresponds to the focal center of the visual field

13

arthritis

inflammation of the joints that is accompanied by pain, stiffness, and movement problems; especially common in older adults

14

osteoporosis

a chronic condition that involves an extensive loss of bone tissue and is the main reason many older adults walk with a marked stoop

15

exercise and aging

-linked to increased longevity
-related to prevention of common chronic diseases
-associated with improvement in the treatment of many diseases
-improves older adults' cellular functioning
-improves immune system functioning
-reduces likelihood of developing mental health problems
-reduces negative effects of stress
-linked to improved cognitive and affective functioning