Chapter 17-Early Alternatives To Psychoanalysis Flashcards Preview

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For Jung, the creative life force that provides the energy for personal growth



According to Jung, that aspect of the psyche responsible for problem-solving, remembering, and perceiving



Jungs term for the place that stores material from one's lifetime of which one is currently not conscious

Personal unconscious


Jungs term for the part of the unconscious mind that reflects universal human experience through the ages. For Jung, it is the most powerful component of the personality

Collective unconscious


According to Jung, an inherited predisposition to respond emotionally to certain categories of experience



Describe Jungs views on the attitudes or personality types

He described to major orientations, or attitudes, that people take in relating to the world. One was labeled introversion and the other extroversion.

The introverted person tends to be quiet, imaginative, and more interested in ideas than in interacting with people. The extroverted person is outgoing and sociable.

Although every individual possesses both attitudes, they usually assume one of the two attitudes more than the other. And he believed that the mature, healthy adult personality reflects both attitudes about equally


According to Jung, what occurs when unrelated events converge in a persons life in a meaningful way



Describe Jungs views on causality, teleology, and synchronicity

Like Freud, he was a determinist and both believed that important causes of a persons personality are found in his or her past experiences. However, he believed that to truly understand a person, one must understand the person's prior experiences-including those registered in the collective unconscious- and the person's goals for the future.

Therefore, his theory embraced teleology or purpose unlike Freud's theory. People are both pushed by the past and pulled by the future.

Another important determinant of personality is synchronicity, or meaningful coincidence that occurs when two or more events, each with their own independent causality, come together in a meaningful way


For Jung, dreams provided a mechanism by which inhibited parts of the psyche might be given expression. Therefore, dream analysis indicated which aspects of the psyche are underdeveloped

Dream analysis


Describe Jung's views on the importance of middle-age

The goal of life is to reach self actualization, which involves the harmonious blending of all aspects of the personality. How the various aspects of personality manifest themselves within the context of a particular persons life is called individuation.

The process of attempting to understand the conflicting forces occupies most of childhood, adolescence, and early childhood. It is usually not until late 30s or early 40s that a major transformation occurs. Once a person has recognized the many conflicting forces in his or her personality, The person is in a position to synthesize and harmonize them. Self actualization occurs when all discordant elements of personality are given equal expression


Describe the commonly cited criticisms and contributions of Jungs theory

Criticisms: embraced occultism, spiritualism, mysticism, and religion. Many saw him as unscientific or even anti-scientific because he used to such things as the symbols found in art, religion, and human fantasy to develop and verify his theory. The archetype has been criticized for being metaphysical and unverifiable. Theory is unclear, incomprehensible, inconsistent, and in places is contradictory. Criticized for employing the Lamarckian notion of the inheritance of acquired characteristics

Contributions: remains popular in psychology. His notions of introversion and extroversion have stimulated much research and are a part of several popular personality tests. He introduced the Aristotlelian notion of self actualization into modern psychology


And early follower of Freud who left the Freudian camp and created his own theory of personality, which emphasized the conscious mind and the individual creation of a worldview, guiding fictions, and a lifestyle in order to overcome feelings of inferiority and to seek perfection

Alfred Adler


According to Adler, the making up for a weakness by developing strengths in other areas



According to Adler, the conversion of a weakness into a strength



According to Adler, those feelings that all humans try to escape by becoming powerful or superior

Feelings of inferiority


According to Adler, the condition one experiences when overwhelmed by feelings of inferiority instead of being motivated toward success by those feelings

Inferiority complex


According to Adler, the way of life that a person chooses to implement the life goals derived from his or her worldview



The concern for other humans and for society that Adler believed characterizes a healthy lifestyle

Social interest


According to Adler, any lifestyle lacking sufficient social interest

Mistaken lifestyle


According to Adler, the component of the personality that provides humans with the freedom to choose their own destinies

Creative self


And ego defense mechanism, postulated by Anna Freud, whereby a person avoids personal anxiety by vicariously living the life of another person

Altruistic surrender


Freudian contention that a number of major personality characteristics are determined by one's gender

Anatomy is destiny


Psychology that emphasizes the autonomous functions of the ego and minimizes the conflicts among the ego, ID, and superego

Ego psychology


According to Jung, the attitude toward life that is characterized by gregariousness and a willingness to take risks



According to Jung, The attitude toward life that is characterized by social isolation and an introspective nature



And ego defense mechanism, postulated by Anna Freud, whereby the fear caused by a person is reduced by adopting the feared person's values

Identification with the aggressor


The doctrine that states that at least some human behavior is purposive, that is, directed to the attainment of future goals



An early follower of Freud who eventually broke with him because of Freud's emphasis on sexual motivation. Develop his own theory, which emphasized the collective unconscious and self actualization

Carl Jung