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What were the people who were interested in the unconscious mind concerned with?

They were concerned with understanding the causes of mental illness and using that understanding to help mentally ill patients


Describe Freud's cocaine episode

He experimented with it after learning that it had been used successfully in the military to increase the energy and endurance of soldiers
After taking the drug himself, he found that it relieved his feelings of depression and cured his indigestion, helped him work, and. You have no negative side effects. He also gave it to his sisters, friends, colleagues, and patients and sent some to his fiancé

With the exception of the anesthetizing effects, all of his other beliefs both substance soon prove to be false. He turned his friend Ernst von Cleashal-marks out who is addicted to morphine towards cocaine and he became addicted. His association with cocaine harmed his medical reputation


Describe Freud's addiction to nicotine

Addicted to nicotine most of his adult life, smoking an average of 20 cigars a day. At the age of 38 it was discovered he had a heart arrhythmia and was told to stop smoking but he continued to do so. When he was 67 he developed cancer of the pallet and John, a series of 33 operations eventually necessitated he's wearing of an awkward prophetic device to replace the surgically removed sections of his jaw. Pain during the last 16 years of his life yet he continued to smoke


Describe Freud's relationship with Joseph Breuer and the case of Anna O.

He developed a friendship with Joseph Breuer , A physician and researcher who had made an important discovery concerning the reflexes involved in breathing, and he was one of the first to show how the semicircular Canal's influenced balance. He loaned Freud money.

It is what Freud learned from brewer concerning the treatment of a woman anonymously referred to as Anna O. That essentially launched psychoanalysis. They began treating her while Freud was still a medical student.

She was a bright, attractive, 21-year-old woman who had a variety of Symptoms associated with hysteria and at one time or another, she had experienced paralysis of the arms or legs, disturbances of sight and speech, nausea, memory loss, and general mental disorientated. Brewer hypnotized her and discovered that she had been required to keep a vigil by the bedside of her dying father and each time he traced a symptom to its origin, which was usually some Trumatic experience, the symptoms disappeared either temporarily or permanently and one by one her symptoms were relieved in this way. It was as if certain emotionally laden ideas cannot be expressed directly but instead manifested themselves in physical symptoms. When such pathogenic ideas were given conscious expression, their energy dissipated, and the symptoms he initiated disappeared and because relief followed the emotional release, which in turn followed the expression of a pathogenic idea, brewer called the treatment the cathartic method. Soon after treatment had started, she began responding to Brewer as if he were her father, a process later called transference. Brewer also began developing emotional feelings toward her, a process later called countertransference. Because of this and it's impact on his life, Brewer decided to terminate his treatment of her.

She went on to become a prominent social worker in Germany, but she was institutionalized after Brewer terminated her treatment. She went on to become a leader in the European feminist movement, a playwright, and author of children's stories, a founder of several schools and clubs for the poor, and an effective spokesperson against white slavery and abortion. Maintained a negative attitude towards psychoanalysis throughout her life.


Describe Freud's visit with Charcot

Charcot Took hysteria seriously and said that it occurred in males as well as females.

Freud claimed to have overheard him say about Histeria "but in this kind of case it is always something gentle-always, always, always". Although he denied making the statement, Freud nonetheless claimed that he had suggested to him the relationship between sexual factors and hysteria and was significant for the development of psychoanalysis

Also learned about posthypnotic suggestion from him. This observation-that in tact ideas of which a person was unaware could play an important role in that person's behavior-was to become an extremely important part of psychoanalysis


Ideas that cause physical disorders

Pathogenic ideas


The alleviation of hysterical symptoms by allowing pathogenic ideas to be expressed consciously

Cathartic method


The process by which a patient responds to the therapist as if the therapist were a relevant person in the patient's life



The process by which a therapist becomes emotionally involved with a patient



The tendency for patients to inhibit the recollection of traumatic experiences



Freud's major tool for studying the contents of the unconscious mind. A patient is encouraged to express freely everything that comes to his or her mind

Free association


Describe Freud's invention of free association

He was finding hip gnosis to be ineffective and was seeking an alternative. He remembered that hypnotists would put their hand on the patients four head and say "now you can remember". He tried having his patients lie on the couch, with their eyes closed, but not hypnotized. He asked the patience to recall the first time they had experienced a particular symptoms, and the patient began to recollect various experiences but usually stop short of the goal, they displayed resistance. At this point, Freud placed his hand on their four head and declared that additional information was forthcoming, and found that this pressure technique was as effective as hip gnosis and soon learned that he didn't even need to touch his patients.

Simply encouraging his patients to speak freely about whatever came to their mind work just as well, and the method of free association was born


The holding of traumatic memories in the unconscious mind because pondering them consciously would cause too much anxiety



According to Freud, the simultaneous tendency both to approach and avoid the same object, event, or person



The causes of our behavior of which we are unaware

Unconscious motivations


Describe the studies on hysteria book as it relates to Freud

Brewer and Freud put forth a number of the basic tenets of psychoanalysis. They noted that hysteria is caused by a traumatic experience that is not loud adequate expression and therefore manifests it self in physical symptoms. Symptoms could be taken as symbolic representation of an underlying Trumatic experience that is no longer consciously available to the patient. Because of such experience is Traumatic, it is repressed or actively held in the unconscious because to ponder it would provoke anxiety. Resistance is a sign that the therapist is on the right track

For Freud, the most effective way of making repressed material conscious is through free association. Freud and Brewer Road separate conclusions to the book, and Freud emphasized the role of sex in unconscious motivation and brew or disagreed, saying instead that any Trumatic experience not just those that were sexual could be repressed


Freud's contention that hysteria is caused by a sexual attack: someone familiar to or related to the hysteric patient had attacked him or her when the patient was a young child. Freud later concluded that in most cases such attacks are imagined rather than real

Seduction theory


Describe Freud's self-analysis

He realized that to be an effective analysist, he had to be psychoanalyzed himself and later insisted that to be a qualified psychoanalysis one need not be a physician, but one does need to be psychoanalyzed and needs at least two years of supervised practice.

Along with a variety of insecurities, such as an intense fear of train travel, a major motivation for Freud's self-analysis was his reaction to the death of his father in the fall of 1896 which affected him very deeply.


A major tool that Freud used in studying the contents of the unconscious mind. Freud thought that the symbols dreams contain could yield information about repressed memories, just as hysterical symptoms could

Dream analysis


According to Freud, what a dream appears to be about

Manifest content


According to Freud, what a dream is actually about

Latent content


According to Freud, in an effort to satisfy bodily needs, the ID conjured up images of objects or events that will satisfy those needs

A symbolic expression of a wish that the dreamer could not express or satisfy directly without experiencing anxiety

Wish fulfillment


The mechanism that distorts the meaning of a dream, thereby making it tolerable to the dreamer

Dream work


The type of dream work that causes several people, objects, or events to be condensed into one dream symbol



The ego defense mechanism by which a goal that does not provoke anxiety is substituted for one that does. Also, the type of dream work that causes the dreamer to dream of something symbolically related to anxiety-provoking events rather than dreaming about being anxiety-provoking events themselves



The situation that, according to Freud, typically manifests itself during the phallic stage of psychosexual development, whereby children sexually desire the parent of the opposite sex and are hostile toward the parent of the same sex

Oedipus complex


According to Freud, relatively minor errors in every day living such as losing and forgetting things, slips of the tongue, mistakes in writing, and small accidents. Freud believed that such errors are often unconsciously motivated



Freud's observation that behavioral and psychological phenomena often have two or more causes



According to Freud, the powerful, entirely unconscious portion of the personality that contains all instincts and is therefore the driving force for the entire personality



According to Freud, the motivational forces behind personality. Each instinct has a source, which is a bodily deficiency of some type; an aim of removing the deficiency; an object, which is anything capable of removing the deficiency; and an impetus, which is a driving force whose strength is determined by the magnitude of the deficiency



For Freud, the collective energy associated with the life instincts

The Latin word for lust



According to Freud, the component of the personality that is responsible for locating events in the environment that will satisfy the needs of the ID without violating the values of the superego



The investment of psychic energy in thoughts of things that can satisfy a person's needs



According to Freud, the internalized values that act as a guide for a persons conduct



The expenditure of psychic energy to prevent the association between needs and the ideas of anxiety-provoking objects or events



The instincts that have as their goal the sustaining of life

Life instincts


The instinct that has death as its goal, sometimes called the death wish

Death instinct


The strategies available to the ego for distorting the anxiety-provoking aspects of reality, thus making them more tolerable

Ego defense mechanisms


Describe Freud's psychosexual stages of development

At any stage, the area of the body on which sexual pleasure is concentrated is called the erogenous zone

The oral stage, The anal stage, the phallic stage, The latency stage, and the genital stage


Describe Freud's views of human nature and of religion

He was largely pessimistic about human nature and that people were inherently aggressive

Although he was pessimistic, he believes that people could, and should, live more rational lives, but to do so they must first understand the workings of their own minds

Religion: contended that the basis of religion is the human feeling of helplessness and insecurity. To overcome these feelings, we create a powerful father figure who will supposedly protect us, a father figure stabilized in the concept of God. Keeps children operating at a child like, a rational level and inhibits a more rational, realistic approach to life


Describe how Freud's followers maintained his legacy

Freud and his followers purposefully attempted to create an image of Freud as a lonely, her heroic figure who was discriminated against because he was a Jew and because his ideas were so revolutionary that the established medical community could not accept them

The Freudian legend had two main components: the theme of the solitary hero struggling against a host of enemies but try am staying in the end and the blotting out of the greatest part of the scientific and cultural context in which psychoanalysis developed, hence the theme of the absolute originality of the achievements, in which the hero is credited with the achievements of his predecessors, associates, disciples, rivals, and contemporaries


Outline the criticisms of psychoanalysis made by Sulloway

1. That psychoanalysts where continually introducing their assertions with the statement, "we know from psychoanalytic experience that…", And then leaving the burden of proof to others

2. His disciples refused to listen to opinions that did not coincide with their own

3. They never published statistics on the success of their method

4. They persisted in claiming that only those who had used the psychoanalytic method had the right to challenge Freud

5. They saw all criticism as a form of neurotic resistance

6. Psychoanalysts tended to ignore all work that had been done before them and then proceeded to make unwarranted claims about their own originality

7. They frequently addressed them selves to the wider lay audience as if their theories were already a proven fact, thus making their opponents see narrowminded and ignorant

8. That so-called wild analysts, or individuals without proper training, were analyzing patients in irresponsible ways

9. Freud's followers were becoming a sect, with all of the prominent features of one, including a fanatical degree of faith, a special jargon, a sense of moral superiority, and a predilection for marked intolerance of opponents


Describe the commonly cited criticisms and contributions of Freud's theory


Method of data collection, definition of terms, dogmatism, over emphasis on sex, the self-fulfilling prophecy, the length cost and limited effectiveness of psychoanalysis, and the lack of falsifiability


Expansion of psychology's domain, psychoanalysis, understanding of normal behavior, and generalization of psychology to other fields