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Flashcards in Quizzes Deck (239):
1

Historicism refers to the belief that

The past should be studied for its own sake without attempting to show the relationship between past and present

2

A psychologist who believes that human behavior is indeed determined but the causes can never be accurately known would be a:

Indeterminist

3

The _______ tends to assume that the human mind takes in information actively

Rationalist

4

The position on the mind-body question claiming that mental and bodily events are coordinated through God's intervention is called:

Occasionalism

5

Presentism assumes that

The present state of a discipline is its best, most fully developed state

6

The belief that human behavior is determined but the causes of behavior cannot be accurately measured is most compatible with:

A. Feyerabend's anarchy principal
B. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
C. Poppers robust determinism
D. Kuhn's preparadigmatic determinism

B. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle

7

_______ maintains that life can never be completely explained in terms of material things and mechanical laws

Vitalism

8

The contention that what we experience mentally accurately reflects the physical world is called:

Naïve realism

9

If any conceivable observation supports a theory, popper would conclude that the theory is:

Weak

10

For popper, a nonscientific theory:

A. Is insignificant
B. Is unimportant
C. Can still be useful
D. Is especially useful

Can still be useful

11

The __________ believes that because cognitive processes such as intentions, values, and beliefs intervene between experience and behavior, humans are responsible for their actions

A. Hard determinist
B. Soft determinist
C. Indeterminist
D. All of these choices

B. Soft determinist

12

According to the author of your text, which of the following would be an appropriate part of the answer to the question, "is psychology a science?"

A. Some aspects of psychology are scientific
B. Some aspects of psychology are not yet scientific but someday they may be
C. Some aspects of psychology will probably never be scientific
D. All of these choices are appropriate answers

D. All of these choices are appropriate answers

13

The approach to writing a history of psychology that combines the best of several approaches is referred to as:

Eclecticism

14

The __________ stresses a persons beliefs, emotions, perceptions, values, and goals as determinants of behavior

Psychical determinist

15

According to Aristotle, the ______ kept an object moving or developing in it's prescribed direction until its full potential was reached

Entelechy

16

According to Plato, whether one is a philosopher-king, a soldier, or a slave, is largely determined by:

Biological inheritance

17

Protagorus, the best known Sophist, presented the sophists position. Which of the following is not representative of the position?

A. Truth depends on the perceiver, not on physical reality
B. Perceptions vary from person to person because previous experiences of individuals affect their perceptions
C. What is truth is not affected by the culture in which one lives
D. To understand why a person believes as he or she does, one must understand the person

C. What is truth is not affected by the culture in which one lives

18

According to Aristotle, _____ was explained as the lingering effects of sensory experience

Imagination

19

Gorgias was a solipsist because he believed that:

A. We can be aware only of our own experiences and mental states
B. There are three objective ways of determining truth
C. Some beliefs are more true than others
D. The effect of words on the mind is like the effect of drugs on the body

A. We can be aware only of our own experiences and mental states

20

Empedocles assumed that perception resulted when:

Eidola entered the pores of the body and mixed with the elements found in the blood

21

According to Aristotle, ____ possess a soul

All living things

22

Socrates used the method of ___ to determine what all examples of a concept such as beauty had in common

Inductive definition

23

Projecting human attributes onto nature is called

Anthropomorphism

24

According to Plato, direct examination of the empirical world via sensory experience resulted in:

Ignorance or, at best, opinion

25

Because Gorgias believed that there is no objective way of establishing truth, he was a:

Nihilist

26

Parmenides believed that knowledge is attained only through rational thought because sensory experience provides:

Illusion

27

According to the author of your text, magic, religion, philosophy, and science can all be viewed as efforts to:

Predict and control nature

28

According to the sophists, what is it that determines whether an idea is accepted?

How effectively the idea is communicated

29

According to Aristotle, ___ was a spontaneous recollection of something that had been previously experienced and ___ involves an actual mental search for a past experience

Remembering; recall

30

Those who said so called universals were nothing more than convenient verbal labels were called:

Nominalists

31

Using Kuhn's terminology to describe the conditions of the 14th and 15th centuries, all of the following were true except:

A. The period was characterized by the intense creativity that results when several paradigms coexist
B. Philosophers were engaged in "normal philosophy"
C. Anomalies were appearing everywhere within the Christian paradigm
D. The Christian paradigm was dominant in the Western world

A. The period was characterized by the intense creativity that results when several paradigms coexist

32

Aristotle's emphasis on ___ placed the church in a difficult position

Reason

33

All of the following individuals searched for abstract truths that existed beyond the world of appearance except:

A. Pythagoras
B. Plato
C. William of Occam
D. Aquinas

William of Occam

34

According to Saint Augustine, evil exists because

Humans chose it

35

According to Philo, The way to true knowledge is by:

A. Introspecting on innate truth
B. A purified, passive mind receiving divine illumination
C. Engaging in active reason
D. Combining empirical observation with rational deliberation

B. A pure, passive mind receiving divine illumination

36

According to Saint Augustine, not acting in accordance with the internal sense caused:

Guilt

37

The fact that St. Paul ___ would have been abhorrent to most Greek philosophers

A. Valued faith above reason
B. Valued reason above faith
C. Valued intuition above empirical observation
D. Valued Epicureanism above Stoicism

A. valued faith above reason

38

The Roman empire's emphasis on law and order fit well with:

Stoicism

39

Confessions, a volume about one man's sins, confessions, and forgiveness was written by:

Saint Augustine

40

To remove inconsistencies in church dogma, Abelard used:

The dialectic method

41

In addition to making a comprehensive review of Aristotle's works and the Islamic and Jewish scholars interpretation of Aristotle's works, ___ was the first since the Greeks to attempt to learn about nature by making careful empirical observations

Magnus

42

The belief that abstract universals (essences) exist and that empirical events are only manifestations of those universals is called:

Realism

43

The belief that extraneous assumptions should be eliminated from explanations is called

Occam's razor

44

The major assumption made in the ontological argument for the existence of God is

If one can think of something, it must exist

45

According to Descartes, when a sense receptor was stimulated, "delicate threads" were pulled and cavities in the brain were opened, thereby releasing ___ into the nerves

Animal spirits

46

Which of the following did not characterize Renaissance humanism?

A. Great concern with human potential and achievements
B. An interest in how people think, behave, and feel
C. An intense interest in the past
D. A deep appreciation of Aristotelianism

D. A deep appreciation of Aristotelianism

47

Martin Luther followed whose lead in criticizing the Catholic Church?

Erasmus

48

According to bacon, science should utilize:

Only the direct observation of nature

49

Which of the following was not a factor in the acceptance of objective study of nature due to the weakening of church authority?

A. The explorations of Marco Polo
B. The invention of metal movable type
C. Martin Luther's challenge to Catholicism
D. The embracing of Aristotle's empirical views

D. The embracing of Aristotle's empirical views

50

Both bacon and Descartes sought to develop a system of thought that:

Was impervious to the doubts of the skeptics

51

The only justification for accepting Copernicus's heliocentric theory was that it:

A. Made accurate astronomical predictions
B. Was compatible with church dogma
C. Explained known astrological facts in a simpler, more harmonious, mathematical order
D. Accorded well with the evidence of the senses

C. Explained known astrological facts in a simpler, more harmonious, mathematical order

52

Galileo used experiments to do all of the following except:

A. Demonstrate the existence of scientific laws
B. Convince skeptics of the existence of scientific laws
C. Show the usefulness of mathematics in science
D. Show that essences are important for explanations

D. Show that essences are important for explanations

53

According to bacon, the human tendency to see events as they would like them constituted the:

Idol of the tribe

54

Giovanni pico argued that:

A. God has granted humans a unique position in the universe
B. Humans are not capable of change
C. Humans do not have freedom to choose from a variety of lifestyles
D. Individuals with differing viewpoints cannot be tolerated

A. God had granted humans a unique position in the universe

55

Which of the following was true of the Ptolemaic system?

A. It was unable to make accurate astronomical predictions
B. It was unable to make predictions in accordance with the testimony of the senses
C. It was congenial to Christian theology because it gave humans a central place in the universe
D. It accepted the heliocentric theory

C. It was congenial to Christian theology because it gave humans a central place in the universe

56

According to Renaissance humanists, Aristotle's philosophy had:

Become too influential within the church

57

Galileo was among the first to conclude that

A. The world of appearance was inferior to a perfect abstract world
B. A science of psychology (conscious experience) was impossible
C. Secondary qualities were superior to primary qualities
D. Human pleasures, passions, and ambitions can and should be studied objectively

B. A science of psychology was impossible

58

Among the Renaissance humanists, skepticism was most clearly demonstrated by:

Montaigne

59

Descartes concluded that we could trust sensory information because:

A. God created our sensory apparatus and God would not deceive us
B. It was always clear and distinct
C. It was compatible with innate ideas
D. It made common sense to do so

God created our sensory apparatus and God would not deceive us

60

Science has two major components

Empirical observation and theory

61

Hume referred to knowledge that existed by definition, such as mathematical knowledge, as:

Demonstrative knowledge

62

Le Mettrie believed all of the following except that:

A. Humans were qualitatively different from nonhuman animals
B. As brain size increases so does level of intelligence
C. If primates could be taught language they would be like humans in almost all respects
D. The smaller the brain the fiercer the animal

A. Humans were qualitatively different from nonhuman animals

63

Of Locke's beliefs concerning the mind, which one is not true?

A. The mind neither creates not destroys ideas
B. The mind can arrange existing ideas in an almost infinite number of configurations
C. The mind clarifies innate ideas
D. The mind combines simple ideas into complex ideas

C. The mind clarifies innate ideas

64

Bains explanation of voluntary behavior combined:

The notions of spontaneous activity and hedonism

65

All of the following were goals of the British empiricists and the French sensationalists except:

A. To explain the mind as newton had explained the physical world
B. To show that metaphysical speculation could not be abandoned when attempting to explain human behavior
C. To minimize or eliminate metaphysical speculation while explaining human psychology
D. To explain mental events in mechanistic terms

B. To show that metaphysical speculation could not be abandoned when attempting to explain human behaviour

66

For Hobbes, choice was:

Nothing more than a verbal label we use to describe the attractions and aversions we experience while interacting with the environment

67

According to ___ The best government was one that provided the greatest amount of happiness to the greatest number of people

Utilitarianism

68

For Hartley, the only process that converted simple ideas into complex ideas was:

Association

69

Which one of the following is not one of the three parts of the dialectic process of Hegel?

A. Synthesis
B. Antithesis
C. Thesis
D. Conflict

D. Conflict

70

Comte used the term sociology to describe

The study of how different societies compared in terms of his proposed three stages of development

71

Bain's goal was to:

A. Show that a science of ethology was possible
B. Describe the physiological correlates of mental and behavioral phenomena
C. Show the compatibility between J. S. Mill's concept of mental chemistry and Cartesian philosophy
D. Show that mental and behavioral phenomena could be explained without employing the law of contiguity

B. Describe the physiological correlates of mental and behavioural phenomena

72

If what is meant by psychology is the introspective analysis of the mind, then according to Comte psychology was:

Metaphysical nonsense

73

Locke's major argument against the existence of innate ideas was that

If ideas were innate, all humans would have them, and they do not

74

James mill maintained that any mental experience could be reduced to:

The simple ideas of which it is constructed

75

Locke advised that children experience a process called hardening in order to

Prepare them for the inevitable hardships of life

76

John Stewart Mills concept of ___ emancipated associationistic psychology from the strict mental mechanics proposed by James mill and others

Mental chemistry

77

Pansychism is the belief that

Everything in nature has consciousness or mental processes

78

On the mind-body issue, Leibniz believed that they never influence each other; it only seems as if they do. This is called:

Psychophysical parallelism

79

Malebranche suggested that ideas are not innate and that they come only from:

God

80

Which of the following is not consistent with Herbart's advice to teachers?

A. Review the material that has already been learned
B. Prepare the student for the new material by giving an overview of what is coming next
C. Relate new material to what has already been learned
D. Show applications of new material before the concepts have been described

D. Show applications of new material before the concepts have been described

81

In a discipline that Kant called ___, he discussed such topics as gender differences, marriage, insanity, and production and control of human behaviour

Anthropology

82

About psychology, Kant believed

Psychology could not become an experimental science

83

According to Herbart, the ___ contained all of the ideas to which we were attending

Apperceptive mass

84

According to Kant, our phenomenological experience resulted from:

The interaction between sensations and the categories of thought

85

According to Spinoza, all human emotions were derived from

The experiences of pleasure and pain

86

For Spinoza, our freedom, or free will, consists:

Of knowing that everything that is must necessarily be

87

According to Bernard, Spinoza's belief in ___ did much to influence the development of scientific psychology

Psychic determinism

88

According to ___ when a person has a desire to move his arm, God is aware of this desire and moves the person's arm

Malebranche

89

A major difference between Descartes and Leibniz was that Leibniz:

Encouraged the study of consciousness in nonhuman animals

90

Kant agreed with Hume that

We can never experience the physical world directly

91

According to Muller, we are directly aware of

Sensory impulses

92

Kant's nativism stressed mental categories, whereas Muller stressed

Physiological mechanisms

93

Nietzsche believed that:

A. There was a God who cared for us
B. The earth occupied a favored position in the universe
C. Evolutionary theory had made human existence more meaningful
D. A person had to create whatever meaning his or her life was going to have

D. A person had to create whatever meaning his or her life was going to have

94

Goethe's idea to embrace the opposing forces present in life had a direct influence on

Jung

95

According to Schopenhauer, when all of our needs are temporarily satisfied we feel

Bored

96

Nietzsche believed that the ___ aspect of human nature manifested itself in the desire for predictability and orderliness

Apollonian

97

According to Rousseau, all of the following were aspects of the optimal condition for learning except:

A. A child and a tutor
B. A child's natural interests
C. A natural setting
D. A curriculum designed to teach basic knowledge

D. A curriculum designed to teach basic knowledge

98

Which of the following is not part of the existential philosophy?

A. Uniqueness of each individual
B. Freedom of choice
C. The importance of rational thought
D. Stressing the meaning of human existence

C. The importance of rational thought

99

Kierkegaard believed that truth was

Both subjective and whatever a person who believed privately and emotionally

100

For Rousseau, The best guide for human conduct was or were

A persons honest feelings and inclinations

101

According to Kierkegaard, the ultimate state of being was arrived at when the individual decided to

Embrace God and take God's existence on faith

102

For Nietzsche, The most Basic motive for human behavior was

The will to power

103

Kierkegaard and Nietzsche had all of the following in common except

A. A criticism of Hegel's Philosophy
B. Rejection of what was conventionally accepted
C. Criticism of the organized church and science
D. A belief in God

A belief in God

104

Nietzsche believed that

A. All human behavior is determined
B. Life without the restraints of religion is certain to be chaotic
C. People are their own creation
D. The only free people are artists

People are their own creation

105

Rousseau referred to a hypothetical human who was uncontaminated by society as a

Noble savage

106

Nietzsche believed that many human problems would be solved if

Every individual strove to be all that he or she could be

107

Gall believed all of the following except

A. There was a relationship between the size of the cortex and intelligence
B. The faculties of the mind we're located in specific locations
C. The bumps and indentations on the skull could be used to measure the magnitude of the underlying faculties
D. The mind functioned as an indivisible whole

D. The mind functioned as an indivisible whole

108

The belief that educational experiences could be arranged so that they strengthened certain faculties of the mind it was called

Formal discipline

109

Miller believed that

A. The physical world was as we perceived it to be
B. Our knowledge of the physical world was limited by the type of sensory receptors we possess
C. We could assume that our sense impressions accurately reflect physical reality because God would not deceive us
D. Our view of physical reality would be the same if we had only one sensory system instead of five

B. Our knowledge of the physical world was limited by the type of sensory receptors we possess

110

Weber found that subjects could detect much smaller weight differences when they lifted the weight then when the weights were simply placed in their hands. He attributed this increased sensitivity to:

Kinesthesis

111

According to Helmholtz, it was the minds job to create a reasonably accurate view of reality based on the distorted and incomplete information furnished by the senses. He described this process with his:

Theory of signs

112

For Hering space perception resulted from

Innate characteristics of the eye which provide information on height, left-right position, and depth

113

Following Spinoza, Fechner believed that

Consciousness is as prevailant in the universe as is matter

114

Mueller's contention that there were five types of sensory nerves, each containing a characteristic energy, was called

The doctrine of specific nerve energies

115

According to Ladd-Franklin, which of the following sequences accurately describes the evolution of vision?

Achromatic vision, blue-yellow sensitivity, red-green sensitivity

116

Helmholtz found that when individuals with normal sight wore distorted lenses they

Would make perceptual mistakes at first but then would adapt and perceive normally

117

In explaining auditory perception, Helmholtz assumed that a sound wave of a particular frequency caused the appropriate fiber in the ___ to vibrate

Basilar membrane

118

Helmholtz changed slightly the color vision theory of ___ and supported it with experimental evidence

Young

119

Concerning Kant's proposed categories of thought, Helmholtz demonstrated that

They were all derived from experience

120

Weber called the smallest difference that could be detected between two stimuli the

Just noticeable difference

121

By shifting one's attention, elements of thought can be arranged and rearranged at will, a process Wundt referred to as

Creative synthesis

122

Titchener defined ___ as the sum total of mental experience at any given moment

The consciousness

123

Which of the following did Wundt Believe about experimental psychology?

A. It was useless in understanding higher mental processes
B. It represented the only worthwhile type of psychology
C. It was impossible
D. It could be used only to investigate the higher mental processes

A. It was useless in understanding higher mental processes

124

Those studying the processes of the mind rather than its contents were called

Act psychologists

125

Wundt believed that feelings were

Various combinations of three attributes

126

By plotting savings as a function of time, Ebbinghaus created psychologies first

Retention curve

127

Wundt's use of introspection most closely resembled that of

Helmholtzain physiologists

128

According to the author of the text, the most important reason for the demise of structuralism was its failure to

Assimilate the doctrine of evolution

129

For Titchener, A stimulus error consisted of

Allowing the meaning of an object to influence one's introspective analysis of that object

130

Titchener concluded that there were about ___ identifiable sensations, most of which were related to the sense of ___

40,000; vision

131

The fact that a person can drive a car for a long distance and not be aware of the fact that he or she is making slight steering adjustments driving exemplifies

Both mental set and a determining tendency

132

As evidence for his views on verbal communication, Wundt pointed out that we remember ___ and not ___

Meanings; specific words

133

Ebbinghaus invented nonsense material to

Free his research material from the influence of prior learning

134

Wundt believed that topics such as religion, social customs, and language could be studied

Both using historical analysis and using naturalistic observation

135

From the experiment with the pendulum clock or thought meter, Wundt concluded

That experimental psychology must stress selective attention or volition

136

In what way did Terman revise the Binet-Simon scale of intelligence?

He added and deleted items until the average score for each age group was 100

137

The goal of the 1905 version of the B'nai-Simon scale of intelligence was to

Distinguish between normal and retarded children

138

Spencers synthesis of the principle of contiguity an evolutionary theory has been called

Evolutionary associationism

139

Herbert Spencer applied the notion of evolution

To everything in the universe

140

When changes in one variable are usually accompanied by changes in the same direction in another variable, the variables are said to be

Correlated

141

According to the author of your text, the Burt scandal taught us more about ___ than about ___

The politics of science; The nature of intelligence

142

Terman found all of the following to be true of the children who participated in his study of genius except

A. They had parents of above average intelligence
B because their intellectual ability developed so quickly and early in life, it was slower than average following childhood
C. They participated in a wide range of activities
D. They had learned to read at an early age

B. Because their intellectual ability developed so quickly and early in life, it was slower than average following childhood

143

According to Spencer, the best government was one that

Allowed free competition among all its citizens

144

Which of the following best summarizes Darwins view of the evolutionary process

Evolution just happens

145

One of the earliest conflicts Darwin had with the church was over

The age of the earth

146

Who formulated a theory of evolution similar to Darwins at about the same time that Darwin formulated his own theory?

Wallace

147

The goal of the 1908 version of the B'nai-Simon scale was to

Distinguish among levels of intelligence for normal children

148

Binet disagreed with Sterns use of the intelligence quotient because

He believed intelligence was too complex to be represented by a number

149

Darwin defined fitness in terms of an organisms

Ability to survive and reproduce

150

Yerkes believed that for intelligence test to be effective in the Armed Forces all of the following would need to be true except

A. They would need to be administered two groups instead of individual
B. They would need to measure native intelligence
C. They would need to be easy to administer and score
D. They would need to be administered to one individual at a time

D. They would need to be administered to one individual at a time

151

Which psychologists research was instrumental in the 1954 court decision on school desegregation?

Kenneth Clark

152

Pavlov found that placing food powder in a dogs mouth increased the dogs saliva flow. In this situation the increased saliva flow was a

Unconditioned response

153

According to Angelle, the functional psychologist believed all of the following except

A. Mental operations were important, whereas mental elements were not
B. Mental processes intervened between an organisms needs and it's environment
C. Nothing worthwhile could be learned about humans by studying nonhuman animals
D. The mind and the body could not be separated

C. Nothing worthwhile could be learned about humans by studying nonhuman animals

154

According to James, a person could increase his or her self-esteem bye

Both succeeding more and attempting less

155

Thorndike's contention that learning occurred without ideation brought him very close to being a

Behaviorist

156

Halls views on women can be best described as

Paradoxical

157

Due to Munsterberg's interests and work, he is known as one of the first

Applied psychologists

158

According to James, the most important thing about consciousness was that it was

Functional

159

Dewey believed that the goal of education should be to facilitate creative intelligence and

Prepare children to live effectively in a complex society

160

Washburn systematically studied several categories of animal behavior in order to

Understand animal consciousness

161

Who was the first African-American in the US to earn a PhD in psychology

Summer

162

Who is commonly credited with the founding of the school of functionalism

Dewey

163

In her studies of animal behavior, Washburns use of control behavior to index mental events was similar to the approach of

Contemporary cognitive psychologists

164

In his writing on forensic psychology, Munsterberg did all of the following except

A. He indicated that Eye witnesses testimony was often unreliable
B. Argued against the harsh interrogation of those thought to be guilty of a crime
C. Proposed that suggestion and stress do not affect perception
D. Describe a device that would later become the lie detector

See. Proposed that suggestion and stress do not affect perception

165

A major problem with the animal research performed by Romanes was that it

Both depended on anecdotal evidence and was characterized by anthropomorphizing

166

Watsons final position on instincts was that

Humans had no instincts

167

Watson's first major accomplishment at the university of Chicago was to

Become an expert on the white rat

168

Which of the following characteristics of contemporary psychology would most disappoint Watson

A. The emphasis on the prediction and control of behavior
B. The emphasis on overt behavior as psychologies subject matter
C. The popularity of cognitive psychology
D. The form of behaviorism referred to as radical

See. The popularity of cognitive psychology

169

Bechterev claimed that ___ was the founder of behavioristic psychology

He

170

Research and ideas from various areas contributed to the development of behaviorism in the US. Which of the following was not a contributing factor?

A. Functionalists moving toward objective forms of study
B. Objective psychology developing in Russia
C. The development of introspective objective analysis
D. The success of research with nonhuman animals

See. The development of introspective objective analysis

171

A belief in the importance of ___ formed the core of McDougals theory

Instincts

172

Watson, along with most functionalists and behaviorists, believed

Psychology should be useful and applied to improvement in the human condition

173

Sechenov

A. Denied consciousness existed
B. Supported the use of introspection
C. Stated that only overt behavior was reflexive
D. Postulated that both overt and covert behavior, or mental processes, result from physiological processes in the brain

D. Postulated that both Ouvert and covert behavior result from physiological processes in the brain

174

Pavlov called the stimuli (CSs) that come to signal biologically significant events the

First-signal system

175

When a previously neutral stimulus elicits some fraction of an unconditioned response, the reaction is called

A conditioned response

176

In contrast to Watson, Mcdougal believed that mental events could be studied objectively by

Observing the influence of such events on behavior

177

What was the outcome of the debate between McDougall and Watson

McDougall was narrowly declared the winner

178

Watsons objective psychology had all of the following in common with Russian objective psychology except

A. Rejection of introspection as a research tool
B. Rejection of mentalism in an explanation of behavior
C. An interest in brain physiology
D. Rejection of the contention that consciousness could cause behavior

See. An interest in brains physiology

179

What did Mcdougal include in his definition of psychology that Watson did not

The study of human consciousness

180

According to McDougall, most human social behavior is governed by

Sentiments

181

According to Guthrie, practice improve the performance of a skill because it

Allows many specific S-R associations to be formed

182

According to Guthrie, the effectiveness of punishment is determined by

What it causes an organism to do in the presence of stimuli that elicit undesirable behavior

183

Which of the following exemplifies molecular behavior?

A. Salivating when a bell is rung
B. Shopping for food in a grocery store
C. A child hiding from a stranger
D. Looking up a word in a dictionary

A. Salivating when a bell is rung

184

During the early stages of hypothesis formation, an organism may ponder alternatives at the choice point, this apparent pondering is called

Vicarious trial and error

185

According to Hull, the probability of a learned response was called ___ and was a function of both the amount of drive present and the number of times the response had been reinforced in the situation plus other intervening variables

Reaction potential

186

Tolman believed that

Learning occurred independently of reinforcement

187

Hull borrowed the concept of ___ from Tolman

Intervening variables

188

If you define a concept in terms of the procedures followed well measuring the concept, you are using a

Operational definition

189

According to skinner, the best way to deal with and decrease undesirable behavior is to

Ignore it and thus put the behavior on extinction

190

For Skinner, the environment was important because it

Selected behavior through reinforcement contingencies

191

Tolman's influence on contemporary psychology can be clearly seen in the work of the

Information-processing psychologists

192

Guthrie's one rule for breaking undesirable habits was

Observe the stimuli that elicit the behavior and perform another act in the presence of those stimuli

193

Who attempted to formalize Guthrie's theory

Both Voeks and Estes

194

Contemporary psychologists have found all of the following to be true except

A. Genetic influences cannot be ignored in the analysis of behavior
B. Some responses an organism makes are more modifiable than others
C. Logical positivism provides an excellent guide for productive research
D. Overt behavior can and should be used to index cognitive events

See. Logical positivism provides an excellent guide for productive research

195

Mach believed that

A. Humans could be investigated objectively only by studying their overt behavior
B. Introspection was worthless
C. Humans could be certain only of their own sensations
D. All science depends on metaphysical speculation

See. Humans could be certain only of their own sensations

196

In his book productive thinking, Wertheimer stated that the type of learning that occurred when mental associations, memorization, drill, and external reinforcement were employed was

Trivial

197

According to Koffka, as adults, most of our conscious experiences are determined by

An interaction between memory processes and memory traces or trace systems

198

Those who take the molar approach to studying behavior and/or psychological phenomena are called

Holists

199

Because of the influence of Carl stumpf, ___ and Gestalt psychology had much in common

Act psychology

200

According to Wertheimer, productive thinking occurred as the result of

Understanding

201

The German word Pragnaz has no exact English counterpart, but an approximation is

Essence

202

According to Kohler, patterns of brain activity and patterns of conscious experience are always structurally equivalent. This described the Gestalt concept of

Psychophysical isomorphism

203

Lewin believed that a persons life space consisted of

Both objectively real facts and imagined facts

204

For the Gestaltists, Analysis of experience

Proceeds from the whole or top to the parts or bottom

205

Camouflage utilizes the Gestalt principle of

Inclusiveness

206

Which type of conflict is the most difficult to resolve

Approach-avoidance

207

While studying learning at Tenerife, Kohlers research subjects were

Chimpanzees

208

For Koffka, The ___ environment constituted the physical environment and the ___ environment constituted subjective reality

Geographical; behavioral

209

According to Leew in, ___ believed that uniqueness, or individual differences, was a distortion caused by external forces interfering with an organisms natural growth tendencies

Aristotle

210

The term Gestalt means

Configuration

211

The York retreat was founded by ___; it provided freedom, respect, and medical treatment for the mentally ill and became a model for mental health institutions throughout the world

Tuke

212

Various terms have been used historically to refer to what is today typically called mental illness. Among the following, which term has not been used to referred to mental illness?

A. Mad
B. Lunatic
C. Maniac
D. Ptolemic

D Ptolemic

213

Although in the 16th and 17th centuries mental illness increasingly came to be viewed as being caused by natural causes rather than super natural causes, it was still poorly understood and treatment was quite harsh. Treatment included:

Bloodletting, spinning patients at high-speed's, throwing Coldwater on chained patients

214

The Hippocratic's believed that hysteria afflicted only

Women

215

What important lesson did Freud learn from Charcot?

Psychological disorders can cause physical problems

216

Who was the first physician to argue against labeling individuals as witches

Agrippa

217

After Mesmer sank into obscurity as a result of a commissions findings about his practices, which of the following men gave well-received lectures on animal magnetism in the United States?

Poyen

218

In Charcot's time, most physicians dismissed hysteria as malingering because

No organic cause could be found for its symptoms

219

The training that Witmer envisioned for clinical psychology was most compatible with the education leading to which of the following degrees

Doctor of philosophy degree PhD

220

Primitive man viewed illness as a result of evil forces or spirits entering the body. This led to attempts to rid the body of the spirits are evil forces by various means including

Both trepanation and bleeding the patient

221

The work of several individuals contributed to the improvement of physical surroundings and maintenance of the mentally ill. However, treatment was still lacking. Alexander and Selsenick suggested three reasons for poor treatment provided for patients. Which of the following is not one of those reasons?

A. Ignorance of the nature of mental illness
B. Fear of the mentally ill
C. Lack of public interest in the plight of the mentally Ill
D. The belief that mental illness is incurable

See. Lack of public interest in the plight of the mentally ill

222

Who wrote a step-by-step rebuttal of the malleus maleficarum, the witches hammer, and referred to witch burning as godlessness

Weyer

223

According to Szasz, psychiatry can be a worthy profession if it

Helps clients better understand themselves, others, and life

224

Throughout history, the basic reasons for seeking help have been to obtain assistance in

Removing, modifying, or controlling anxiety, depression, alienation, or other distressing psychological state

Changing undesirable behavior patterns such as timidity or drug abuse

Promoting more positive personal growth and the development of greater meaning in one's life

225

Because Breuer found that Anna O's condition improved following the emotional release that came from expressing a pathogenic idea. He's treatment was called

The cathartic method

226

What was the third scourge of humanity that Freud advocated for a time

Cocaine

227

In dream analysis, displacement is when

Instead of dreaming about an anxiety provoking event, the dreamer dreams of something symbolically similar to it

228

___ suggested a threshold above which an idea is conscious and below which an idea is unconscious and proposed a conflict model of the mind according to which ideas struggle for conscious expression

Herbart

229

What happened to Anna O.

She went on to become a prominent social worker

230

In the psychopathology of every day life, Freud refers to minor errors in every day living such as slips of the tongue, forgetting things, and small accidents which are called

Parapraxes

231

Freud believed that all ego defense mechanisms

Distort reality and operate on the unconscious level

232

According to Masson, Freud major mistake was concluding that

The childhood seductions reported to him by his patients were imagined rather than real

233

At one point, Freud believed that adult hysteria was the result of an actual sexual incident that occurred in the life of the patient. This was called the

Seduction theory

234

When a patient expresses emotions toward the therapist that once were expressed towards another person, this is called

Transference

235

Freud's theory has been criticized for all of the following except

A. Being non-representative of the general population because Freud used his own patients as the source of data
B. It contained many concepts that are difficult to verify
C. It's over emphasis on sex
D. It's emphasis on neurophysiological mechanism

D. It's emphasis on neurophysiological mechanism

236

Who was among the first to suggest that mental experiences range from those of which we are aware to those of which we are unaware

Leibniz

237

The collective energy associated with the instincts in the ID is called the ___ and accounts for most human behavior

Libido

238

A male is disturbed by his homosexual urges and decides to have numerous sexual encounters with women. According to Freud, this exemplifies

Reaction formation

239

Who discovered the processes of sublimation, repression, and resistance first?

Schopenhauer