Chapter 18-Humanistic or Third-Force Psychology Flashcards Preview

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According to third-force psychologists, what was missing from the other two forces in psychology?

Behaviorism and psychoanalysis neglected a number of important human attributes

Behaviorism like and humans to robots, lower animals, or computers, saying there was nothing unique about humans. The major argument against psychoanalysis was that a concentrated mainly on emotionally disturbed people and on developing techniques for making abnormal people normal.

What was missing, was information that would help already healthy individuals become healthier-that is, to reach their full potential. A model of humans that emphasized their uniqueness and they're positive aspects rather than their negative aspects was needed


A persons consciousness

Subjective reality


Describe the role of the concept of subjective reality in third-force psychology

Contrasts vividly with other types because it does not assume determinism in explaining human being. Rather, it assumes that humans are free to choose their own type of existence. Instead of attributing the causes of behavior to stimuli, drive states, genetics, or early experience, third-force psychologists claim that the most important cause of behavior is subjective reality

Current science is not equipped to study, explain, or understand human nature and a new science is needed, a human science that would recognize humans as aware, choosing, valuing, emotional, and unique beings in the universe


The introspective study of intact, mental experiences



The study of the nature of existence



Expanded Husserl's phenomenology to include an examination of the totality of human existence

Martin Heidegger


The brand of contemporary psychology that was influenced by existential philosophy. The key concepts include freedom, individuality, responsibility, anxiety, guilt, throwness, and authenticity

Existential psychology


Heidegger 's term for "being-in-the-world." The world does not exist without humans, and humans do not exist without the world. Because humans exist in the world, it is there that they must exercise their free will. Being-in-the-world means existing in the world, and existing means interpreting and valuing one's experiences and making choices regarding those experiences



According to the existentialists, such as Heidigger, the type of life that is freely chosen and not dictated by the values of others. In such a life, one's own feelings, values, and interpretations act as a guide for conduct

Authentic life


A characteristic of the authentic life because the authentic person is always becoming something other than what he or she was. It is normal, healthy psychological growth of a human being



A life lived in accordance with values other than those freely and personally chosen. Such a life is characterized by guilt

Inauthentic life


According to Heidigger, The feeling that results most intensely from living an inauthentic life



The feeling that results when one confronts the unknown, as when one contemplates death or when one's choices carry one into new life circumstances. According to existentialists, one cannot live an authentic life without experiencing this



According to Heidigger and Binswanger, The circumstances that characterize a person's existence that are beyond the person's control


Includes whether we are male or female, short or tall, attractive or unattractive, rich or poor, American or Russian, the time in human history that we are born, and so on


Binswanger's method of psychotherapy that requires that the therapist understand the clients worldview. Examines a persons mode of being-in-the-world



The abnormal fear of freedom that results in a person living a life that minimizes personal choice

Neurotic anxiety


Results from living an authentic life

Normal anxiety


Kierkegaard's term for the type of life lived by a defensive, inauthentic person



According to existentialists, the condition that results when people except values other than those that they attained freely and personally as guides for living



Examines the stories by which people live and understand their lives and, where necessary, encourages the replacement of ineffective stories with effective ones

Narrative therapy


According to May, any human attribute or function that in moderation is positive but in excess is negative



Emphasized that it is always possible to construe one's self and the world in a variety of ways. Psychological problems are essentially perceptual problems

George Kelly


According to Kelly, the collection of personal constructs with which people make predictions about future events

Construct systems


Kelly's notion that it is always possible to view ourselves and the world in a variety of ways

Constructive alternativism


According to Kelly, the experimentation with ideas to see where they lead

Propositional thinking


Describe the similarities between the views of Kelly and Vaihinger

Both emphasized propositional thinking, or the experimentation with ideas to see where they lead


The self-description that Kelly required of many of his clients before beginning their therapeutic program


Provided Kelly with information about how the client to do it himself or herself, the world, and other people


Kelly's brand of therapy whereby he would assign a role for his clients to play that was distinctly different from the clients self-characterization. With this type of therapy, the therapist acts much like a supporting actor

Fixed-role therapy

Kelly's approach to therapy reflected his belief that psychological problems are perceptual problems and that the job of the therapist is therefore to help the client view things differently


A humanistic psychologist who emphasized the inmate human tendency toward self-actualization. Contended that behaviorism and psychoanalysis provided only a partial understanding of human existence and that humanistic, or third-force, psychology needed to be added to complete our understanding

Abraham Maslow

Usually is recognized as the one most responsible for making humanistic psychology a formal branch of psychology


What are the basic features of humanistic psychology?

- Little of value can be learned about humans by studying nonhuman animals

- subjective reality is the primary guide for human behavior

- studying individuals is more informative than studying what groups of individuals have in common

- A major effort should be made to discover those things that expand and enrich human experience

- research should seek information that will help solve human problems

- The goal of psychology should be to formulate a complete description of what it means to be a human being. Such a description would include the importance of language, the valuing process, the full range of human emotions, and the ways humans seek and attain meaning in their lives