Flashcards in Chapter 17 Fire Control Deck (138):
What three criteria help determine the tactics in a interior offensive fire strategy?
Value. Time. Size.
Is intended to isolate or stabilize an incident and keep it from spreading.
Name four conditions when a defensive strategy would be chosen on a structure fire.
Excessive Volume of Fire. Structural Deterioration. Risk Outweighs the Benefit. Unfavorable Wind Conditions.
What strategy might be employed while waiting for more firefighters/resources to arrive?
Defensive to Offensive.
Employed when a situation rapidly changes. Follow with a PAR check.
Offensive to Defensive.
What type of withdrawal would involve leaving hose lines in place?
Emergency Evacuation ( if absolutely necessary)
Coordination between crews performing different tactics or task is what?
Name three ways to maintain situational awareness.
Look, Listen, Communicate
Hoseline selection is depended on fire conditions and what other factors?
Fire load and material involved. Flow rate needed for extinguishment. Stream reach needed. Number of firefighters needed to advance lines. Need for speed or mobility. Tactical requirements. Ease of hoseline deployment. Potential Fire Spread. Size of Building. Size of Fire Area. Location of fire.
What is the minimum size hoseline that should be used on a interior fire attack?
Name three functions of the back up hoseline.
Protect attack team from extreme fire behavior. Protect the means of egress for the attack team. Provide additional fire suppression in the event the fire increases in volume.
What size, flow rate, and nozzle type should a back up line be?
At least the same size and flow rate as the attack line, with a fog nozzle for protection.
Hose of 3/4" to 2" in diameter. Used for firefighting.
Small Diameter Hose Line (SDH)
Name four criteria that will determine the nozzle and stream selection.
Fire Conditions. Available water supply. Number of firefighters available to safely operate the hose line. Capabilities of the nozzle being used.
What nozzle is typically the most useful for a interior fire attack?
If a fire attack is going to be made from the structures exterior, a solid stream nozzle may be the best option. Why?
Because it delivers the greatest amount of water over the farthest distance.
Attack line are generally placed to protect firefighter, occupants, and property. Name some other considerations to take when placing a attack line.
Wind Direction and Velocity. Building Construction. Initial Fire Location. Location of Occupants. Exposures.
List pre-entry considerations for firefighter safety and effectiveness.
Read fire behavior indicators. Understand tactical assignment. Identify egress. Evaluate forcible entry requirements. Identify hazards. Verify working radios and channel. Ensure SCBA is ready. Ensure PASS is ready. Do a buddy check.
Name three ways you can check if a door is hot before entering it.
Back of hand. TIC. Spray water on it.
The following two factors have changed the fire services understanding of fire behavior in structure fires.
Greater heat release rate of modern building materials and modern furnishings. Increased effect of wind on fire expansion and development.
Where should the wind be when you attar a fire?
At your back.
Name three fire attack methods.
Direct, indirect, combination
Attack method that involves the discharge of water or foam onto the burning fuel.
Form of fire attack that involves directing a fog stream at the ceiling in order to generate large amount of steam.
Attack method that extinguishes fire by using direct and indirect attack at the same time. Move nozzle in a Z, T, or Rotational pattern.
A fire that is located in a remote part of the structure or hidden from view by objects in the compartment.
What type of fire is gas cooling effective with?
How should a fire be attacked in a muti story structure without stand pipes?
Through main entrance, up closet stairway to the fire location.
T or F Some departments allow elevators to transport personnel, equipment, and tools to the staging area (usually 2 floors below the fire floor)?
In a unfinished basement the first floor joist will fail quicker due to what?
No protection from drywall.
Factors that contribute to basement fires.
Fuel load, especially on the floor above. Age of exposed joist. Hidden fire paths in walls and ducts. Use of lightweight construction materials that are susceptible to rapid collapse.
Test have shown that floor joist may fail before the fire burn through what?
The floor decking.
UL test indicated that sounding the floor and using a TIC were not good indicators of floor stability. What must be inspected after the fire is out?
Visual inspection of floor joist.
If any exterior opening to the basement exist, use it to do what? Before entering.
Apply water and ventilate
Name three things that will influence firefighting tactics n a commercial basement fire.
Stand pipe connections. Ventilation and air flow paths. Amount of breathing air needed.
Name two forms of passive exposure protection.
Fire rated walls and doors
When performing exposure protection, the direct application of water is better then what?
A water curtain
What is the primary location for shutting power off?
The electric meter
Any voltage higher then 600 volts.
When these things are present removing the meter or shutting off the master switch may not turn the power off entirely.
Alternative energy sources
Most solar panels have two shut off switches, where are they most likely located?
One on each side of the power inverter.
Pure form it is methane. Flammability range of 5-15%. Nontoxic. Lighter then air. May displace O2 in confined spaces, considered a asphyxiate.
Name two gases that are considered Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG).
Butane and Propane
No odor of its own. Asphyxiate. One and half times heavier then air. Explosive in ranges of 1.5-10%. A leak will produce a visible cloud of vapor that hugs the ground. A vapor cloud can be dissipated with a fog nozzle of at least 100gpm. Valve located on the line entering the structure and on the storage tank.
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Why should caution be used when touching water pipes?
Ground wire may run on them.
What make a structure a protected structure?
Having some type of fire protection system.
Name four types of indicating valves that may be used on a sprinkler system.
OS&Y. Post Indicator Valve (PIV). Wall Post Indicator Valve (WPIV). Post Indicator Valve Assembly (PIVA)
Threaded portion is visible when the valve is open.
Post that contains a movable plate with the words OPEN and SHUT.
Post Indicator Valve. PIV
Similar to a PIV except it extends horizontally through the wall.
Wall Post Indicator Valve
Uses a flat disk. When the valve is open the disk is perpendicular to the surrounding plate. When the valve is closed the plate is inline with the plate surrendering it. Operated with a built in crank.
Post Indicator Valve Assembly (PIVA)
Name the four main uses of master streams.
Direct attack. Indirect attack. Supplement exterior handlines. Exposure protection.
Where should a master stream be placed?
In a location that allows the stream to cover the most surface area of a building, especially where large volume of water or needed and limited master streams are available.
Except for apparatus deck guns, how many firefighters would it take to deploy a master stream and the hose?
At least 2.
One firefighter should be placed at the master stream unless what?
It is placed in a hazardous area.
Any voltage greater then 40 volts is dangerous, however if water must be applied it should be done how?
From a distance with a fog or spray stream.
When should a ground cover fire started by downed power lines be extinguished?
When the fire leaves the point of contact.
Where are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) found and what are there dangers?
Older, oil field transformers. Flammable and carcinogenic.
Even transformers marked as not containing PCB's can contain up to how much PCB's?
Up to 49 ppm
How should fires in ground transformers be extinguished?
With a dry chem or carbon dioxide extinguisher.
How far away should firefighters and personnel stay away from a underground transmission system that has the potential to explode?
300' and don't park apparatus on access covers.
When can firefighters enter a underground electrical utility vault?
After a qualified person has shut off the power. All firefighting operations should take place outside until then.
Should fog streams be used in high voltage energized equipment fires?
When searching a room with high voltage equipment what must be worn?
Full PPE, SCBA, and a tag line.
How should a room with high voltage equipment be searched?
Clenched fist, using the back of the hand-this reduces a reflex action of grabbing.
Name six factors that affect the seriousness of a electrical shock.
Path of electricity. Degree of skin resistance (wet = low, dry = high). Length of exposure. Available current (AMPS). Available voltage. Frequency (AC or DC).
What is the first rule in dealing with electrical equipment.
Assume it is live until proven otherwise.
Ground gradient is like what?
A ripple of water. Step in one ripple and a separate one and you may get shocked.
Standard on Protective Ensembles for Structural Fire Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting.
What two problems are faced with Class D fires?
They burn at extremely high temps, they react with water.
How hot are combustible metal fires?
greater then 2000 degrees
The first act of after arriving on the scene of a vehicle accident is to do what?
Decide is traffic needs to be diverted and request assistance.
What is the minimum amount a gpm that should be used to attack a vehicle fire?
T or F A back up hose line should be deployed ASAP on vehicle fires?
Name four visual indicators that a vehicle uses alternative fuel.
Vehicle Logo, Fuel-specific logo. Special fuel ports. Distinctive vehicle profiles.
Name four considerations for responding on alternative fuel vehicle accidents.
Park 100' away. Use non sparking tools. Do not use flares. Select extinguishing agent for the specific type of fuel.
How do you handle CNG vehicle accidents?
No fire = Use gas detector to locate leaks. Shut off valves. Eliminate ignition sources. Stay clear of vapor clouds.
Fire= allow fuel to burn itself out. Use water or foam to extinguish if necessary. Use fog stream to disperse fog cloud. Avoid contact with releasing gas.
What temp is LNG stored at? What does front on the outside of storage tank indicate?
-260 F, tank failure.
How do you handle LPG vehicle accidents?
No fire= stabilize vehicle, turn off ignition, shut off gas cylinder valve.
Fire = Avoid contact. Stay clear of vapor clouds. Shut off ignition to stop the fuel flow to a leak or fire. Use purple K dry-chem or high expansion foam on the surface of a LPG fire. Use sand and dirt to prevent LPG from entering storm drains.
The third most common vehicle fuel after gas and diesel.
LPG (propane) (safer then gas)
How fast does LPG expand when heated?
1.5 times for every 10 degrees in temp.
How do you handle LPG vehicle accidents?
Allow fire to self extinguish. Use foam or water if extingushment must be performed. Direct streams at the top of the LPG tank for cooling. Stay clear of vapor clouds
How do handle vehicle accidents in electric vehicles?
No fire = secure vehicle, turn off ignition, remove key.
Fire = Full PPE and SCBA. Don't touch liquids. Do not approach if it is on fire or arching. Establish scene security and protect exposures.
How long may it take for a electric vehicle to de-energize after being shut off?
up to 5 minutes
Gasoline blends. Burn with a bright blue, may be hard to see during the day. Use a TIC to locate flames and fire. Use a Alcohol Resistant Class B foam to extinguish fire. Request a Haz-mat team with fires and leaks.
Yellow in color. slightly lighter then water. Flash point of 266 F. If on fire use dry chem, CO2, water fog spray, or foam to extinguish.
Self ignition of 550 F. Flammability range of 4-75%. Flame is invisible during the day so use a TIC. Shut off ignition, isolate from ignition sources. chock wheels. Do not extinguish the fire. Protect exposures and let fuel burn. Do not cut C post which contains vents.
Name the three main influences on ground cover fires.
Fuel. Weather (most significant). Topography
Name the three basic types of ground cover fires.
Ground, Surface. Crown
Burn in the layer of dead organic matter (called humus. Slow moving. Can go undetected for months before entering a flaming stage. Very difficult to extinguish.
Sometimes called a crawling fire. Most common type of ground cover fire. Burns low lying grass, shrubs, and other vegitation.
Wind driven high intensity fires that move through the tree tops. Caused by lighting or extension of other ground fires. Ladder fires (may be a fourth type of ground cover fire) because it moves up small trees, fallen timber, and vines.
Roots, peat, other partially decomposed organic matter lies under the surface of he ground.
Needles, twigs, grass, brush up to 6', small trees.
Fuels physically separated from the ground enough to where air can circulate around them.
Name five factors that affect the burning characteristics of ground cover fires.
Fuel size. Compactness. Continuity. Volume. Fuel Moisture Content.
Name four weather factors that influence ground cover fires.
Wind. Temperature (long term drying). Relative Humidity. Precipitation (mainly with live fuels).
Name three topography factors that effect ground cover fires.
Aspect ( compass direction a slope faces, determines the affects of solar heating). Local Terrain Features (canyons, ridges, ravines, rock outcroppings may alter airflow causing turbulence or eddies.) Drainage's (Cause a chimney effect with winds, rapid fire spread).
Standard on Protective Clothing and Equipment for Wildland Fire Fighting.
What is the minimum equipment a firefighter should have for ground cover fires?
Helmet with eye protection and neck shroud. Flame retardant shirt and pants. Protective footwear (no steel toe). Gloves. Fire Shelter (in crush restive case).
The methods to attack a ground cover fire revolve around what?
The direct and indirect attack are the two basic methods of attacking ground cover fires. Describe each.
Direct = action taken against the flames at the edge or parallel to it.
Indirect = Control line is constructed some distance from the edge of the main fire, and the fuel in between the two lines is burned. Used on fires that are to hot, big, or fast.
The situational awareness acronym LCES stands for what?
L= Lookouts C = Communications E= Escape Routes S= Safety Zone
Where are lookouts placed.
In areas that they can see the fire without being in front of it.
In ground cover fires what is a escape route?
A marked path that leads to a safety zone. Should be located in the burned area if it has cooled enough.
In 957 the US dept of Agricultural Forest Service develop what?
The TEN STANDER FIRE FIGHTING ORDERS.
What are the 10 standard fire fighting orders?
1. Keep informed on weather conditions. 2. Know what the fire is doing. 3. Base all actions on current and expected fire behavior. 4. Identify and know escape routes and safety zones. 5. Post look outs when there is possible danger. 6. Be alert, keep calm, think clearly, act decisively. 7. Maintain prompt communication. 8. Give and understand instructions. 9. Maintain control of your forces. 10. Fight fire aggressively, providing for safety first.
If you feel an indication that lighting is about to strike what should you do?
drop to your knees, bend forward putting your hands on your knees. Do not lay flat.
Rescue. Exposures. Confinment. Extinguishment. Overhaul. Ventilation. Salvage
Name the four search priorities.
The area most severely threatened. The area with the largest number of threatened. Remainder of fire area. Exposures.
To aggressively attack a fire from the exterior with a large diameter (2 1/2" or larger) fire stream.
A blitz attack must be coordinated with other operations to avoid what?
Spreading the fire to other parts of the structure.
What equipment should a RIT team have?
A radio. Full PPE and SCBA. Special rescue tools. A spare SCBA bottle.
Name some task the RIT team should perform.
Stage equipment. Size up building for egress. Complete a 360. Remove egress barriers. Monitor radio for distress calls. Clear windows. Place ladders. Open exits. Illuminate building.
When Nothing Showing (aka. Investigation mode) is announced upon arrival where should incoming units stage?
Predetermined portions or at the last intersection in there route of travel.
When the officer or firefighters direct involvement is necessary for the unit to take immediate action to save a life or stabilize the situation.
A fast attack will continue until one of these three things happen.
Incident is stabilized. Incident is not stabilized, crews withdraw, officer establishes formal command. Command is transferred.
Involves the officer performing multiple task such as serving as IC, developing a IAP, and performing active task. (advance hos line).
Involves the officer remaining at the mobile radio in the apparatus, assigning task to unit personnel, communicating with other responding units, and expanding the NIMS-ICS as needed.
Name two ways command can be transferred.
Face-to face. Over radio to on scene person.
The single most important factor in safely operating at underground space emergency's is what?
Recognizing the inherit hazards of confined spaces.
Name some atmospheric and physical hazards that are expected in underground spaces.
O2 deficiencies. Flammable gas and vapor. Toxic Gas. Extreme Temps. Explosive Dust. Limited means of entry/ egress. Cave ins or unstable supports. Standing water or other liquids. Utility Hazards.
Firefighters must not be allowed to enter a underground space until what?
A IAP has been developed and communicated.
Flammable liquids can be ignited with out what?
What is the first action with dealing with flammable and combustible liquids and gases?
Determine the wind direction
Flammable/combustible liquid fires burning around relief valves and piping must not be extinguished until what?
The leak is controlled
What is a indication that a vessel is overheating and may rupture.
A increase in intensity of sound from the relief valve.
For a BLEVE to occur the contents must be above what?
There boiling point.
What is the most common cause of a BLEVE?
When flames contact the tank shell above the liquid level and when insufficient water is applied to keep it cool.
What must be worn when entering a area where a non water based suppression system has been activated?
Name three uses of water on class C fires.
Cooling Agent. Mechanical Tool. Crew Protection
NFPA requires how many gpm on a vessel that has flame impingement?
At least 500 gpm at each flame impingement point.
What angle should a pressurized storage tank be approached from?
There is no known safe angle to approach from.
On vehicle fires what should be done to prevent run off entering storm drains?
They should be blocked.
What is the range of pressure in a natural gas systems?
From 1000 psi in the distribution network to 0.25 psi at the point of use.
What is the natural gas pressure normally in the local distribution piping?
below 50 psi
What is the the common cause of natural gas pipe breaks?