Chapter 17: The Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking > Chapter 17: The Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 17: The Nervous System Deck (19)
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1

Gray matter consists of...

...aggregations of neuronal cell bodies.
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2

White matter consists of...

...neuronal axons that are coated with myelin.
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3

The internal capsule is...

...a white-matter structure where myelinated fibers converge from all parts of the cerebral cortex and descend into the brainstem.
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4

The spinal cord is thickest in the ________ segment, which contains nerve tracts to both the....

cervical
upper and lower extremities
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5

The spinal cord is divided into the following segments:

cervical, from C1 to C8
thoracic, from T1 to T12
lumbar from L1 to L5
sacral from S1 to S5
coccygeal
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6

To avoid injury to the spinal cord, most lumbar punctures are performed at the...

...L3-4 or L4-5 vertebral interspaces
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7

Each nerve has an anterior (_______) root containing _____ fibers, and a posterior (______) root containing _______ fibers.

ventral; motor
dorsal; sensory
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8

What is cranial nerve I and what is its function?

Olfactory - sense of smell
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9

What is cranial nerve II and what is its function?

Optic - vision
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10

What is cranial nerve III and what is its function?

Oculomotor - pupillary constriction, opening the eye (lid elevation), and most extraocular movements
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11

What is cranial nerve IV and what is its function?

Trochlear - downward, internal rotation of the eye
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12

What is cranial nerve V and what is its function?

Trigeminal
- Motor - temporal and masseter muscles (jaw clenching), lateral pterygoids (lateral jaw movement)
-Sensory - facial. The nerve has three divisions: (1) ophthalmic, (2) maxillary, and (3) mandibular
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13

What is cranial nerve VI and what is its function?

Abducens - lateral deviation of the eye
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14

What is cranial nerve VII and what is its function?

Facial
-Motor - facial movements, including those of facial expression, closing the eye, and closing the mouth
-Sensory - taste for salty, sweet, sour, and bitter substances on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue
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15

What is cranial nerve VIII and what is its function?

Acoustic - hearing (cochlear division) and balance (vestibular division)
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16

What is cranial nerve IX and what is its function?

Glossopharyngeal
-Motor - pharynx
-Sensory - posterior portions of the eardrum and ear canal, the pharynx, and the posterior tongue, including taste (salty, sweet, sour, bitter)
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17

What is cranial nerve X and what is its function?

Vagus
-Motor - palate, pharynx, and larynx
-Sensory - pharynx and larynx
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18

What is cranial nerve XI and what is its function?

Spinal accessory - motor - the sternomastoid and upper portion of the trapezius
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19

What is cranial nerve XII and what is its function?

Hypoglossal - motor - tongue
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