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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (49)
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1

small structure present in the cytoplasm of the cell such as mitochondrion

organelle

2

a group of different tissues organized to perform a specific function

organ

3

a type of nucleic acid contained in the nucleoli of cells. A component of messenger, transfer and ribosomal RNA

RNA (ribonucleic acid)

4

liquid absorption by cells in which a segment of cell membrane forms small pockets and engulfs the liquid. Similar to phagocytosis, except that liquids rather than particulate material are ingested.

pinocytosis

5

a small cytoplasmic vaculoe containing digestive enzymes

lysosome

6

the information carried by the codons of DNA molecules in chromosomes.

genetic code

7

cytoplasmic organelle containing various enzymes, including those that decompose potentially toxic hydrogen peroxide.

peroxisome

8

a small cytoplasmic organelle that serves as the site of protein synthesis. Ribosomes are usually attached to the endoplasmic reticulum but may be free in the cytoplasm.

ribosome

9

a large stellate cell having highly branched processes. forms the structural framework of the nervous system. One of the neurogilial cells.

astrocyte

10

material in which connective tissue cells are embedded

matrix

11

a group of cells that are derived from the fertilized ovum and are destined to form the embryo

inner cell mass

12

a change from one type of cell to a more resistant cell type

metaplasia

13

one type of neurogilia that surrounds nerve fibers within the central nervous system.

oligodendrogila

14

a high energy phosphate compound that liberate energy to power numerous cellular metabolic processes

ATP (adenperoxisoneosine triphosphate)

15

the outer germ layer in the embryo that gives rise to specific organ and tissues

ectoderm

16

a pathological process that results in the formation and growth of a tumor

neoplasia

17

an insoluble sulfer-containing protein that is the principal constituent of hair and nails

keratin

18

short cylindrical structures located adjacent to the nucleus that participate in the formation of spindle fibers during cell division

centrioles

19

structural changes associated with cell death

necrosis

20

a solution having essentially the same osmolarity as body fluids so that cells neither shrink nor swell when exposed to the solution.

isotonic solution

21

the nerve cell including the nerve cell body and its processes

neuron

22

ingestion of particulate of foreign material by cells

phagocytosis

23

the internal lining of blood vessels and interior of heart

endothelium

24

protein tubules and filaments that from the structural framework of cells

cytoskeleton

25

the middle germ layer of the embryo which gives rise to specific organs and tissues

mesoderm

26

cell derived from the fertilized ovum that gives rise to the fetal membranes and contributes to the formation of the placenta

trophoblast

27

phagocytic cells of the nervous system comparable to macrophages in other tissues

microglia

28

an increase in the number of cells

hyperplasia

29

a group of membrane-lined sacs found in the cytosplasm of the cell near the nucleus

golgi apparatus

30

a measure of osmotic pressure exerted by a solution

osmolarity