Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

Abnormal Psychology > Chapter 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (55)
Loading flashcards...
1

Model

A set of assumptions and concepts that help scientists explain and interpret observations. Also called a paradigm.

2

Neuron

A nerve cell

3

Synapse

The tiny space between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another

4

Neurotransmitter

A chemical that, released by one neuron, crosses the synaptic space to be received at receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons

5

Receptors

A site on a neuron that receives a neurotransmitter

6

Endocrine system

Endocrine glands work along with neuron to control vital activities

7

Hormone

The chemicals released by endocrine glands into the bloodstream

8

Gene

Chromosome segments that control the characteristics and traits we inherit

9

Evolution

Contributes to abnormal functioning
Ex. Fear helped ancestors escape danger and threats, now leads to anxiety disorders

10

Psychotropic medication

Drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning

11

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

A form of biological treatment, used primarily on depressed patients, in which a brain seizure is triggered as an electric current passes through electrodes attached to the patient's forehead

12

Psychosurgery

Brain surgery for mental disorders. Also called neurosurgery.

13

Unconscious

Unavailable to immediate awareness

14

ID

According the Freud, the psychological force that produces instinctual needs, drives, and impulses

15

Ego

According to Freud, the psychological force that employs reason and operates in accordance with the reality principle

16

Ego defense mechanism

According to psychoanalysis theory, strategies developed by the ego to control unacceptable id impulses and to avoid or reduce the anxiety they arouse

17

Superego

According to Freud, the psychological force that represents a person's values and ideals

18

Fixation

According to Freud, a condition in which the id, ego, and superego do not mature properly and are frozen at an early stage of development

19

Ego theory

Emphasize the role of the ego and consider it a more independent and powerful force than Freud did

20

Self theory

Give the greatest attention to the role of the self--the unified personality

21

Object relations theory

Propose that people are motivated mainly by a need to have relationships with other and that severe problems in the relationships between children and their caregivers may lead to abnormal development

22

Free association

A psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes any thought, feeling, or image that comes to mind, even if it seems unimportant

23

Resistance

An unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy

24

Transference

According to psychodynamic theorists, the redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings associated with important figures in a patient's life, now or in the past

25

Dream

A series of ideas and images that form during sleep

26

Catharsis

The reliving of past repressed feelings in order to settle internal conflicts and overcome problems

27

Working through

The process in which the patient and the therapist must examine the same issues over and over in the course of many sessions each with greater therapy

28

Short-term psychodynamic therapies

Patients choose a single problem to work on

29

Relational psychoanalytic therapy

Argues that therapists are key figures in the lives of patients, so they should disclose things about themselves and their own reactions to patients

30

Conditioning

A simple form of learning