Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (18):
1. Which term best describes the identification of the distribution and causes of disease, injury, or illness?
a. Nursing process
b. Epidemiologic process
c. Community-based statistics
d. Mortality and morbidity statistics
Epidemiology is the science of population health applied to the detection of morbidity and mortality in a population. It identifies the distribution and causes of diseases across a population. Nursing process is a systematic problem-solving approach for the delivery of nursing care. Morbidity and mortality statistics, along with natal rates, may provide an objective picture of a community’s health status.
2. A community nurse at the health department is trying to identify how many new cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease have occurred in the city this past year. Which statistic should the nurse examine?
Incidence will provide the number of cases of a particular disease process. Mortality statistics specify the number of deaths from a given cause. Morbidity statistics specify the prevalence of specific illnesses in a population at a particular time.
3. A nurse is collecting subjective and objective information about target populations to diagnose problems based on community needs. This describes which step in the community nursing process?
d. Establishing objectives
The nursing process stages are similar, whether the client is one child or a population of children. The assessment phase of the nursing process focuses on collecting subjective and objective data. Planning is the development of community-centered goals and objectives. Diagnosis is the identification of problems specific to the community.
4. A nurse is establishing several health programs, such as bicycle safety, to improve the health status of a target population. This describes which step in the community nursing process?
The nurse working with the community to put into practice a program to reach community goals is the implementation phase of the community nursing process. Planning involves designing the program to meet community-centered goals. The evaluation stage would determine the effectiveness of the program. During the assessment phase, the nurse would identify the resources necessary and the barriers that would interfere with implementation.
5. A school nurse is conducting vision and hearing testing on fifth-grade children. Which level of prevention is the nurse demonstrating?
d. Health promotion
Secondary prevention focuses on screening and early diagnosis of disease. Vision and hearing testing are screening tests to detect problems. Primary prevention focuses on health promotion and prevention of disease or injury. Tertiary prevention focuses on optimizing function for children with a disability or chronic disease. Health promotion is focused on preventing disease or illness.
6. A community health nurse is collecting assessment data by interviewing community leaders. What type of assessment is this community nurse conducting?
b. Windshield survey
Subjective information indicates what community members say are their most important needs. Interviewing community leaders would be a subjective assessment. Objective information is data that the nurse collects either by direct observation or through written sources. A windshield tour is one method of direct observation. Statistics would be objective information gathering.
1. Which interventions by a community can be classified as primary prevention interventions? (Select all that apply.)
a. Administering immunizations
b. Teaching a child with asthma how to use an inhaler
c. Conducting scoliosis screening exams
d. Teaching a community parenting class
e. Conducting assessments at a well-child care clinic
ANS: A, D, E
Primary prevention focuses on health promotion and prevention of disease or injury. Examples of primary prevention activities include well-child care clinics; immunization programs; safety programs (bike helmets, car seats, seat belts, childproof containers); nutrition programs; environmental efforts (clean air programs); sanitation measures (chlorinated water, garbage removal, sewage treatment); and community parenting classes. Teaching a child how to use an inhaler is tertiary prevention and conducting scoliosis screening exams is secondary prevention.
Which defines a group of people living in a specific geographic area?
c. Target population
d. Individual countries and states
A group of people living in a specific geographic area is the definition of a community.
Culture refers to a group of people who share a common language and traditions.
A target population is a narrowly defined group toward which nurses can direct actions to improve health.
Individual countries and states are geopolitical entities.
The nurse is setting up a community safety program on car seats. What level of prevention is this?
Car seat safety focuses on health promotion and the prevention of disease or injury, which is primary prevention.
Tertiary prevention focuses on optimizing function for children with chronic illnesses and disabilities.
Secondary prevention involves screening and the early diagnosis of diseases.
Environmental is not a level of prevention.
The nurse is teaching levels of prevention at a community health clinic. Which is considered tertiary prevention in community health?
a. Prenatal visits in a health clinic for teenagers
b. Pediculosis screening at an elementary school
c. Working with postoperative scoliosis patients in a rehabilitation clinic
d. Counseling for a recent divorce in the family
Tertiary interventions include rehabilitation for children with a disability or a chronic disease.
Prenatal visits in a health clinic for teenagers are primary prevention interventions.
Pediculosis screening at an elementary school is a secondary prevention intervention.
Counseling for a recent divorce in the family is a secondary prevention intervention.
The school nurse is working on a drug and alcohol education program with a sixth-grade class. This education program is an example of what type of community prevention?
a. Primary prevention
b. Secondary prevention
c. Tertiary prevention
d. Basic prevention
Primary prevention focuses on health promotion and prevention of disease or injury. Prevention of drug and alcohol use in school-age children and adolescents promotes healthy living.
Secondary prevention focuses on screening and early diagnosis of disease.
Tertiary prevention focuses on optimizing function for children with a disability or disease.
Basic prevention is not defined.
A community health nurse is focusing on secondary prevention in the community. Which is appropriate to include in secondary prevention planning?
a. Encouraging annual routine health physicals
b. Providing information to patients is an asthma clinic
c. Holding an immunization clinic for an underserved community
d. A lead screening program for children in a rural setting
Secondary prevention focuses on screening and early diagnosis of disease. Examples of secondary interventions include tuberculosis and lead screening programs and mental health counseling for stressful events such as separation, divorce, or community natural disasters.
Encouraging annual routine health physicals is a form of primary prevention.
Providing information to patients in an asthma clinic is a tertiary prevention intervention.
Holding an immunization clinic for an underserved community is a primary prevention intervention.
The main objective of the nursing role in the community is to focus on
a. cost of health care.
b. emergency management.
c. population-based programs.
d. wellness and health promotion.
The focus is on promoting and maintaining the health of individuals, families, and groups in a community setting.
The cost of health care is not the main objective of the nursing role in the community.
Emergency management is not the main objective of the nursing role in the community.
Population-based programs do not make up the main objective of the nursing role in the community.
Nurses working in the community must be educated in epidemiology and statistics for population health. Which statistic below is an example of neonatal mortality rate?
a. Crude birth rate
b. Cause-specific death rate
c. Age-specific death rate
d. Prevalence of disease
The neonatal mortality rate is the number of deaths in a population in a certain age group, (neonates); over the total population in that age group, (neonates).
The crude birth rate is the number of childbirths per 1000 people per year.
The cause-specific death rate is the number of deaths from a specified cause per 100,000 people per year.
The prevalence of a disease is the number of cases of the specific disease in a population
Which is objective information that can be found in a community?
a. Individuals from the community who report on the level of food insecurity
b. A phone book detailing the community resources
c. The mayor’s reports about the level of homelessness in the community
d. A family member’s statements on the lack of resources available in the community
Objective information is data that the nurse collects either by direct observation or through written sources.
Individuals from the community reporting on the level of food insecurity is an example of subjective information.
Mayor’s reporting about the level of homelessness in the community is an example of subjective data.
A family member’s statements on the lack of resources available in the community would be an example of subjective data.
Community nursing involves community evaluation and planning. What is the first step in the community nursing process?
The assessment phase of the community nursing process is called a community needs assessment and is the first step in the community nursing process.
Planning is the second phase of the community nursing process.
Implementation is the third phase of the community nursing process.
Evaluation is the final phase of the community nursing process.
A local community has recently experienced a tornado that resulted in loss of homes and many injuries. Community health initiatives have provided counseling to assist families in coping with the sequelae of this natural disaster. This example represents primary prevention.
This is an example of secondary prevention. Secondary prevention includes screening for tuberculosis as well as mental health counseling for stressful events such as natural disasters. Primary prevention focuses on health promotion and disease prevention such as car seat safety and immunizations.