Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (30):
Which is descriptive of family system theory?
a. Family is viewed as the sum of individual members.
b. Change in one family member cannot create a change in other members.
c. Individual family members are readily identified as the source of a problem.
d. When the family system is disrupted, change can occur at any point in the system
Family systems theory describes an interactional model. Any change in one member will create change in others.
Although the family is the sum of the individual members, family systems theory focuses on the number of dyad interactions that can occur.
Change in any family member will affect other members of the family.
The interactions are considered to be the problem, not the individual members
Which phrase is descriptive of homosexual or gay-lesbian families?
a. Nurturing environment is lacking
b. Stability needed to raise healthy children is lacking
c. Sexual identities of children are at risk
d. Family environment can be just as healthy as any other
Although these families may be different from heterosexual families, the environment can be as healthy as any other.
Lacking a nurturing environment is reflective of the parents and family, not the type of family.
Lacking in stability is reflective of the parents and family, not the type of family.
There is little evidence to support that the sexual identities of children are at risk.
Studies of families with only one child indicate that only children
a. tend to be selfish.
b. are similar to firstborn children.
c. are less stimulated toward achievement.
d. grow up lonely and dependent on adults.
As only children, they have many of the characteristics of firstborn children.
Selfishness is not associated with birth order.
Being less stimulated toward achievement is characteristic of middle children.
Loneliness and dependence on adults are not associated with birth order.
Which is appropriate advice for parents who are preparing to tell their children about their decision to divorce?
a. Avoid crying in front of children.
b. Avoid discussing the reason for the divorce.
c. Give reassurance that the divorce is not the children's fault.
d. Give reassurance that the divorce will not affect most aspects of the children's life.
Parents, if able, should hold and touch children and reassure them that the children are not the cause of the divorce.
Parents can cry in front of children; it may give the children permission to do the same.
Parents should provide the reasons for the divorce in a manner the children will understand.
Giving reassurance that the divorce will not affect most aspects of the children's life would most likely be false reassurance, since many aspects will change.
A nurse is assessing a family for effective coping and defensive strategies. The family social system theory the nurse will use is the
a. family systems theory, as derived from general systems theory.
b. resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation.
c. family developmental theory.
d. family stress theory.
Family stress theory explains how families react to stressful events and suggest factors that promote adaptation to stress. When too many stresses occur in a short period of time for adaptation to occur, a state of crisis occurs.
Family systems theory emphasizes the relationships among and between family members and the environment.
The Resiliency Model of family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation demonstrates that the family is required to make adjustments and adaptations.
Family developmental theory addresses family change over time.
Research notes that birth position of children affects their personalities. According to ordinal position, what is a characteristic of the youngest child?
a. Able to identify more with their parents than with their peers
b. Are expected to do more household chores
c. More dependent than firstborn children
d. Are more flexible in their thinking
Youngest children develop interpersonal skills, the ability to negotiate, and accept less favorable outcomes better than older siblings; therefore, they are more flexible
Firstborn and only children identify more with their parents than peers. Youngest children identify more with peers than parents and make friends more easily.
Youngest children have fewer demands placed on them for household help
Youngest children are less dependent than firstborn children
A camp nurse is assessing a group of children attending summer camp. Based on the nurse’s knowledge of special parenting situations, which group of children is at risk for a sense of belonging?
a. Children adopted as infants
b. Children recently placed in foster care
c. Children whose parents recently divorced
d. Children who recently gained a step-parent
Children placed in foster care are at greater risk to have problems perceiving a sense of belonging.
Children adopted at birth have fewer problems with acceptance when parents follow pre-adoption counseling about disclosure.
Children of divorced parents often fear abandonment.
Children who gain a stepparent are at risk for having trust problems with the new parent.
A 7-year-old child tells the nurse, “Grandpa, Mommy, Daddy, and my sister live at my house.” Based on the nurse’s knowledge of family structure and function, the nurse identifies this family structure as a
a. binuclear family.
b. extended family.
c. reconstituted family.
d. traditional nuclear family.
An extended family contains at least one parent, one or more children, and one or more members, related or unrelated, other than the parent or sibling such as grandparents.
A binuclear family refers to parents continuing the parenting role while terminating the spousal unit.
A reconstituted family, also called blended family, includes at least one stepparent, stepsibling, or half-sibling.
A traditional nuclear family consists of a married couple and their biologic children.
Successful adaptation to the stress of transition to parenthood involves two types of family resources. These resources include (Select all that apply)
c. coping strategies.
d. internal resources
e. community resources.
Ans: C, D
A nurse is assessing parental styles of a family and notes little to no control over their children. This style of parenting is called __________________________.
Permissive parents exert little to no control over their childrens actions. These parents consider themselves to be resources for their children instead of role models. These parents do not use limit setting and discipline.
1. A nurse is selecting a family theory to assess a patient’s family dynamics. Which family theory best describes a series of tasks for the family throughout its life span?
a. Interactional theory
b. Developmental systems theory
c. Structural-functional theory
d. Duvall’s developmental theory
Duvall’s developmental theory describes eight developmental tasks of the family throughout its life span. Interactional theory and structural-functional theory are not family theories. Developmental systems theory is an outgrowth of Duvall’s theory. The family is described as a small group, a semiclosed system of personalities that interact with the larger cultural system. Changes do not occur in one part of the family without changes in others.
2. Which family theory explains how families react to stressful events and suggests factors that promote adaptation to these events?
a. Interactional theory
b. Developmental systems theory
c. Family stress theory
d. Duvall’s developmental theory
Family stress theory explains the reaction of families to stressful events. In addition, the theory helps suggest factors that promote adaptation to the stress. Stressors, both positive and negative, are cumulative and affect the family. Adaptation requires a change in family structure or interaction. Interactional theory is not a family theory. Interactions are the basis of general systems theory. Developmental systems theory is an outgrowth of Duvall’s theory. The family is described as a small group, a semiclosed system of personalities that interact with the larger cultural system. Changes do not occur in one part of the family without changes in others. Duvall’s developmental theory describes eight developmental tasks of the family throughout its life span.
3. Which is the term for a family in which the paternal grandmother, the parents, and two minor children live together?
An extended family contains at least one parent, one or more children, and one or more members (related or unrelated) other than a parent or sibling. A blended family contains at least one step-parent, step-sibling, or half-sibling. The nuclear family consists of two parents and their children. No other relatives or nonrelatives are present in the household. In binuclear families, parents continue the parenting role while terminating the spousal unit. For example, when joint custody is assigned by the court, each parent has equal rights and responsibilities for the minor child or children.
4. A nurse is assessing a family’s structure. Which describes a family in which a mother, her children, and a stepfather live together?
A blended family contains at least one step-parent, step-sibling, or half-sibling. The nuclear family consists of two parents and their children. No other relatives or nonrelatives are present in the household. In binuclear families, parents continue the parenting role while terminating the spousal unit. For example, when joint custody is assigned by the court, each parent has equal rights and responsibilities for the minor child or children. An extended family contains at least one parent, one or more children, and one or more members (related or unrelated) other than a parent or sibling
5. Which is considered characteristic of children who are the youngest in their family?
a. More dependent than firstborn children
b. More outgoing than firstborn children
c. Identify more with parents than with peers
d. Are subject to greater parental expectations
Later-born children are obliged to interact with older siblings from birth and seem to be more outgoing and make friends more easily than firstborns. Being more dependent, identifying more with parents than peers, and being subject to greater parental expectations are characteristics of firstborn children and only children.
6. Parents of a firstborn child are asking whether it is normal for their child to be extremely competitive. The nurse should respond to the parents that studies about the ordinal position of children suggest that firstborn children tend to:
a. be praised less often.
b. be more achievement oriented.
c. be more popular with the peer group.
d. identify with peer group more than parents.
Firstborn children, like only children, tend to be more achievement-oriented.
Being praised less often, being more popular with the peer group, and identifying with peer groups more than parents are characteristics of later-born children.
7. A 35-year-old client is currently on fertility treatments. When responding to a question from the client about multiple births, which statement by the nurse is accurate?
a. Use of fertility treatments has been associated with an increase in multiple births.
b. Your chance of having multiple births is at the same rate as all women of childbearing age.
c. There is not enough evidence about the use of fertility treatments increasing the rate of multiple births.
d. Because of your age and the fertility treatments, you have almost a 100% chance of a multiple birth.
Because women in their thirties are almost 2.5 times as likely as women in their twenties to have higher-order plural births, increased childbearing among older women and the expanded use of fertility drugs have been associated with an increase in the multiple-birth ratio. The rate of having a multiple birth for this client is not the same for all women of childbearing age. There are data indicating that fertility treatments increase the rate of multiple births, but fertility treatments do not have a 100% rate of multiple births.
8. Nicole and Kelly, age 5 years, are identical twins. Their parents tell the nurse that the girls always want to be together. The nurse’s suggestions should be based on which statement?
a. Some twins thrive best when they are constantly together.
b. Individuation cannot occur if twins are together too much.
c. Separating twins at an early age helps them develop mentally.
d. When twins are constantly together, pathologic bonding occurs.
Twins work out a relationship that is reasonably satisfactory to both. They develop a remarkable capacity for cooperative play and considerable loyalty and generosity toward each other. Parents should foster individual differences and allow the children to follow their natural inclinations. Individuation does occur. In twinship, one member of the pair is more dominant, outgoing, and assertive than the other. Early separation may produce unnecessary stresses for the children. There is no evidence that pathologic bonding occurs when twins are constantly together.
9. The nurse is teaching a group of new parents about the experience of role transition. Which statement by a parent would indicate a correct understanding of the teaching?
a. “My marital relationship can have a positive or negative effect on the role transition.”
b. “If an infant has special care needs, the parents’ sense of confidence in their new role is strengthened.”
c. “Young parents can adjust to the new role easier than older parents.”
d. “A parent’s previous experience with children makes the role transition more difficult.”
If parents are supportive of each other, they can serve as positive influences on establishing satisfying parental roles. When marital tensions alter caregiving routines and interfere with the enjoyment of the infant, then the marital relationship has a negative effect. Infants with special care needs can be a significant source of added stress. Older parents are usually more able to cope with the greater financial responsibilities, changes in sleeping habits, and reduced time for each other and other children. Parents who have previous experience with parenting appear more relaxed, have less conflict in disciplinary relationships, and are more aware of normal growth and development.
10. When assessing a family, the nurse determines that the parents exert little or no control over their children. This style of parenting is called:
Permissive parents avoid imposing their own standards of conduct and allow their children to regulate their own activity as much as possible. The parents exert little or no control over their children’s actions. Dictatorial or authoritarian parents attempt to control their children’s behavior and attitudes through unquestioned mandates. They establish rules and regulations or standards of conduct that they expect to be followed rigidly and unquestioningly. Democratic parents combine permissive and dictatorial styles. They direct their children’s behavior and attitudes by emphasizing the reasons for rules and negatively reinforcing deviations. They respect the child’s individual nature.
11. When discussing discipline with the mother of a 4-year-old child, the nurse should include which instruction?
a. Children as young as 4 years old rarely need to be punished.
b. Parental control should be consistent.
c. Withdrawal of love and approval is effective at this age.
d. One should expect rules to be followed rigidly and unquestioningly.
For effective discipline, parents must be consistent and must follow through with agreed-on actions. Realistic goals should be set for this age group. Parents should structure the environment to prevent unnecessary difficulties. Requests for behavior change should be phrased in a positive manner to provide direction for the child. Withdrawal of love and approval is never appropriate or effective. Discipline strategies should be appropriate to the child’s age, temperament, and severity of the misbehavior. Following rules rigidly and unquestioningly is beyond the developmental capabilities of a 4-year-old.
12. Which is most characteristic of the physical punishment of children, such as spanking?
a. Psychological impact is usually minimal.
b. Children rarely become accustomed to spanking.
c. Children’s development of reasoning increases.
d. Misbehavior is likely to occur when parents are not present.
Through the use of physical punishment, children learn what they should not do. When parents are not around, it is more likely that children will misbehave because they have not learned to behave well for their own sake, but rather out of fear of punishment. Spanking can cause severe physical and psychological injury and interfere with effective parent-child interaction. Children do become accustomed to spanking, requiring more severe corporal punishment each time. The use of corporal punishment may interfere with the child’s development of moral reasoning.
13. A 3-year-old girl was adopted immediately after birth. The parents have just asked the nurse how they should tell the child that she is adopted. Which guidelines concerning adoption should the nurse use in planning a response?
a. Telling the child is an important aspect of their parental responsibilities.
b. The best time to tell the child is between ages 7 and 10 years.
c. It is not necessary to tell the child who was adopted so young.
d. It is best to wait until the child asks about it.
It is important for the parents not to withhold information about the adoption from the child. It is an essential component of the child’s identity. There is no recommended best time to tell children. It is believed that children should be told young enough so they do not remember a time when they did not know. It should be done before the children enter school to keep third parties from telling the children before the parents have had the opportunity
14. A parent of a school-age child is going through a divorce. The parent tells the school nurse the child has not been doing well in school and sometimes has trouble sleeping. The nurse should recognize this as which implication?
a. Indication of maladjustment
b. Common reaction to divorce
c. Lack of adequate parenting
d. Unusual response that indicates need for referral
Parental divorce affects school-age children in many ways. In addition to difficulties in school, they often have profound sadness, depression, fear, insecurity, frequent crying, loss of appetite, and sleep disorders. This is not an indication of maladjustment, suggestive of lack of adequate parent, or an unusual response that indicates need for referral in school-age children after parental divorce.
15. A mother brings 6-month-old Eric to the clinic for a well-baby checkup. She comments, “I want to go back to work, but I don’t want Eric to suffer because I’ll have less time with him.” The nurse’s most appropriate answer would be which statement?
a. “I’m sure he’ll be fine if you get a good babysitter.”
b. “You will need to stay home until Eric starts school.”
c. “You should go back to work so Eric will get used to being with others.”
d. “Let’s talk about the child-care options that will be best for Eric.”
Let’s talk about the child-care options that will be best for Eric is an open-ended statement that will assist the mother in exploring her concerns about what is best for both her and Eric. I’m sure he’ll be fine if you get a good babysitter, You will need to stay home until Eric starts school, and You should go back to work so Eric will get used to being with others are directive statements. They do not address the effect of her working on Eric.
1. Dunst, Trivette, and Deal identified the qualities of strong families that help them function effectively. Which qualities are included? (Select all that apply.)
a. Ability to stay connected without spending time together
b. Clear set of family values, rules, and beliefs
c. Adoption of one coping strategy that always promotes positive functioning in dealing with life events
d. Sense of commitment toward growth of individual family members as opposed to that of the family unit
e. Ability to engage in problem-solving activities
f. Sense of balance between the use of internal and external family resources
ANS: B, E, F
A clear set of family rules, values, and beliefs that establishes expectations about acceptable and desired behavior is one of the qualities of strong families that help them function effectively. Strong families also are able to engage in problem-solving activities and to find a balance between internal and external forces. Strong families have a sense of congruence among family members regarding the value and importance of assigning time and energy to meet needs. Strong families also use varied coping strategies. The sense of commitment is toward the growth and well-being of individual family members, as well as the family unit
2. A nurse is conducting a teaching session on the use of time-out as a discipline measure to parents of toddlers. Which are correct strategies the nurse should include in the teaching session? (Select all that apply.)
a. Time-out as a discipline measure cannot be used when in a public place.
b. A rule for the length of time-out is 1 minute per year.
c. When the child misbehaves, one warning should be given.
d. The area for time-out can be in the family room where the child can see the television.
e. When the child is quiet for the specified time, he or she can leave the room.
ANS: B, C, E
A rule for the length of time-out is 1 minute per year of age; use a kitchen timer with an audible bell to record the time rather than a watch. When the child misbehaves, one warning should be given. When the child is quiet for the duration of the time, he or she can then leave the room. Time-out can be used in public places and the parents should be consistent on the use of time-out. Implement time-out in a public place by selecting a suitable area or explain to children that time-out will be spent immediately on returning home. The time-out should not be spent in an area from which the child can view the television. Select an area for time-out that is safe, convenient, and unstimulating but where the child can be monitored, such as the bathroom, hallway, or laundry room.
3. Divorced parents of a preschool child are asking whether their child will display any feelings or behaviors related to the effect of the divorce. The nurse is correct when explaining that the parents should be prepared for which type of behaviors? (Select all that apply.)
a. Displaying fears of abandonment
b. Verbalizing that he or she “is the reason for the divorce”
c. Displaying fear regarding the future
d. Ability to disengage from the divorce proceedings
e. Engaging in fantasy to understand the divorce
ANS: A, B, E
A child 3 to 5 years of age (preschool) may display fears of abandonment, verbalize feelings that he or she is the reason for the divorce, and engage in fantasy to understand the divorce. They would not be displaying fear regarding the future until school age, and the ability to disengage from the divorce proceedings would be characteristic of an adolescent.
1. A nurse is admitting a child, in foster care, to the hospital. The nurse recognizes that foster parents care for the child _____ hours a day. (Record your answer as a whole number.)
The term foster care is defined as 24-hour substitute care for children outside of their own homes.