Chapter 2 - Apprehension Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Apprehension Deck (13):

Three Criteria of a Public Speaking Situation

1) Communicative intention
2) Uninterrupted speaking time
3) Multiple Listeners


Communicative Intention

1) Whenever our goal is to inform, persuade, or entertain
2) generally does not cause anxiety


Uninterrupted Speaking Time

1) Can be formal or informal
2) can cause anxiety
3) some advantages
- ability to prepare in advance
-present message in its entirety without interruption


Multiple Listeners

1) not dyadic communication - communication between tow persons who interact as senders and receivers
2) public speaking had multiple listeners
3) need to concentrating on delivering the message to all relevant receivers
4) often triggers anxiety


Three Stages of Anxiety

1) Anticipation Reaction
2) Confrontation Reaction
3) Adaptation Reaction


Anticipation Reaction

1) panic before giving a speech
2) can be experienced any time think about giving a speech
3) can be reduced by having an approach that emphasizes giving a speech and not a performance orientation


Confrontation Reaction

1) Occurs when speaker faces audience
2) Physiological symptoms - heart rate surges, jitters, sweaty palms, butterflies, weak knees, tunnel vision, dry throat
3) Completely normal - attention of listeners evokes fight or flight response,
4) only lasts 60-90 seconds


Adaptation Reaction

1) occurs shortly after spike of confrontation
2) hear rates returns to normal, reduces the physiological symptoms experienced
3) anxiety reduced


Irrational Fears

1) Illusion of Transparency
-feeling that listeners can see through you, know how you are feeling
-not true, listeners also too far too notice little cues of internal states
2) Spotlight Effect
-audience is staring at scrutinizing the speaker
- most listeners focused on self, struggle to maintain focus on speaker
3) expectation of perfection
-comes form a performance orientation (expecting speaker to have to do all of the work to staisfying a largley passive audience of critics
-leads speaker to be concerend with preferred behaviors and assume anything else will result in a negative review by the audience
- countered by seeeing speech as a communicative encounter and not a performance, having a communication orientation
-can be most damaging irrational fear


Communication Orientation

1) a good speech is one that achieves its communicative purpose
2) view speech more as normal communication that unusual performance
3) public speaking as same process as liner model of communication with multiple listeners
4) view listeners as receiviers - primary focus will be on content of the message (Speaker and receivers work together)
5) construct speeches with specific communication objectives in mind - main points that are of value to the audience


Strategies for confidence

1) view public speaking as an opportunity
- to share information
- to influence others
-to express something imp
-to reach out to more than one person
- enables Immediacy factor--ability of a live speech to make listeners feel closer to the message and thus increase the messages impact on the audience
2) Visualization
3) Relabeling
4) Deep breathing
-use diaphragm (b/t stomach and chest)
5) habbituation


Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety (PRPSA)

1) Average score = 115
2) my score = 121
3) between 98 and 131 = moderate level of speech anxiety
4) below 98 = low level of speech anxiety
5) above 131 = high level of speech anxiety


Immediacy Factor

1) presence of a person
2) reason for public speaking
3) strengthens message impact