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Flashcards in Language and Delivery Deck (12):
1

Three methods of delivery

1) Formal
2) impromptu
3) extemporaneous

2

Formal Speeches

1) can be memorized or done with a manuscript
2) Memorized
- entirely memorized including times to engage in cues
- impactful, but difficult
Benefits
precise control over language, timing, and material covered
all prep done in advance
Drawbacks
a) inability to adjust message to audience feedback
b) freezing up - must continue at next point you can recall
3) Manuscript Speeches
- speakers have entire speech written out word for word as they speak, very common
Benefits
a) no fear of freezing up
b) well organized
c) ability to jump off script (but constrained)
c) notes where to make nonverbal cues
Drawbacks
a) very difficult to adapt to audience
b) temptation to stare directly at paper (seems distant and disinterested)
c) distances speaker from audience

3

Extemporaneous Speeches

1) a speech delivered with notes but not the entire speech in front of the speaker (most student speeches)
2) Benefits
a) high degree of control of material covered and some control over language and timing
b) improved eye contact
c) feels natural and conversational to others
d) allows incorporation of evidence and supporting materials
e) message can be clear and precise
f) allows for some flexibility to deal with unplanned events
3) drawbacks
a) must spend adequate practice time, more difficult to practice than formal,
b) must prepare key word outline - time consuming, more than impromptu
c) possibility of losing place in notes
d) in some cases may be inappropriate to deliver

4

Impromptu Speeches

1) a presentation done with little or no perparation
2) must create mental outline quickly - connect situation and audience
3) Advantages
- high degree of flexibility
- little or no advance prep required
- feels natural and conversational to listeners
4) Drawbacks
- Lack of control
- without prep the message may not be clear or concise
- difficulty incorporating evidence and supporting materials

5

Key Concepts of (Extemporaneous) Delivery

1) whatever assists in communicating message effectively to audience is good; whatever detracts from it or your cred is bad
2) 4 C's of good ext delivery
-Contact
-Clarity
- Control Distractions
-Confidence

6

Contact

1) Key concept of extemporaneous delivery
2) eye contact
- not necessary eyes, but feedback zone (face, maybe arms and hands)
3) needed to receive feedback
4) audience needs to make contact with you - do not conceal your face or your hands

7

Clarity

1) Key concept of extemporaneous delivery - Being as loud and clear as is necessary for the entire audience to hear and comprehend
2) Nonverbal Clarity
- speaking at a moderate pace with appropriate use of pauses
- tone and facial expressions match what you are saying
- easier to exercise non verbal clarity in extemp speeches than formal
3) Verbal Clarity
- careful word choice
- avoid slang, audience generalizations

8

Control Distractions

1) key concept of extemporaneous delivery
2) 3 categories: noise, repetitive distractions, nad unusual distractions
3) repetitive behaviors
- repetitive utterances, um, so, you know, etc
- bad hand gestures, wringing, pushing hair back, etc
- pacing
4) Unusual
- attract our attention and can become a distraction if speaker is not intending for it
- inappropriate dress
- bad posture
- too much mocement
- no movement
5) Controlling Environmental Distractions
a) ignoring the distraction
-good for brief, mild distractions, benefit = do not draw audience attention to it
b) pausing to allow the distraction to pass
- handle a brief but loud/strong distraction
- advantage = prevents listeners from missing your points
c) acknowledging the distraction
- when it would be more distracting to ignore it

9

Confidence

1) key component of extemporaneous speaking
2) real confidence
- believing in message, not self. Focus on quality of the message
3) fake confidence
- never say anything to undermine cred or apologize
- take advantage of silence

10

Functions of Non-Verbal Communication in Speech

1) Five positive
Repeat -- physical actions restate verbal messages ex. counting
Accent -- augment a verbal message, create emphasis
Compliment -- action demonstrates the message contained in the verbal content, most effective nonverbal message, ex. laughing at own joke
Substitute - take place of verbal messages, ex. smile
Regulate -- govern the course of a speech or interaction , indicate end or help guide question and answer sessions
2) one negative
Contradict - nonverbal cues that indicate something different to the verbal statements of the speaker, can arise if pick a false topic

11

Four Virtues of language

- clarity
- correctness (grammatically and rhetorically)
- vividness (aestthetic quality, figures of speech)
- Appropriateness ( aptly fit to subject matter)

12

Characteristics of Language

1) arbitrary, ambiguous, abstract