Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Research Methods Deck (24)
Studies in which researchers observe infants in their usual surroundings, such as their own home or their regular childcare centre.
Studies in which researchers remain relatively passive observers in the sense that, apart from being physically present, they do not interfere in or try to influence the situation.
A detailed description of the range of behaviours researchers observe.
A technique in observational research in which a small number of behaviours are identified and the researcher makes a note each time they occur by making a mark on a prepared checklist.
A clear, concrete verbal description that enables researchers to measure target behaviours and outcomes accurately.
The phenomenon in which researchers' expectations or beliefs influence the way they record or interpret behaviour
A technique for exploring the interaction of culture and biology, in which researchers from a Western culture male observations or conduct interviews in everyday settings in non-western cultures.
A specially designed researched research space that enables researchers to control or eliminate the influence of irrelevant or distracting factors.
Aspects of a research setting that researchers identify or vary, such as the presence or absence of an infant's mother, in order to determine their effect on behaviours of interest.
The main behaviour or response of interest in a study; this is the researchers' measure of the impact of the independent variable.
The degree to which the findings of one study can be extended, or generalized, to other samples and settings.
Also referred to as the clinical method, this is an in-depth examination of a single individual.
Observational records made by parents or other caregivers of an infant's early development.
A variation of the case study, in which researchers intervene or study the effects of an experimental manipulation within a single participant.
A design in which researchers collect information about groups of participants that are already formed before the study begins.
A design that examines the influence of an independent variable on a dependent variable.
The equivalent of flipping a coin, this technique is used to ensure that each child has an equal chance of being placed into the different groups being compared on a specific dependent variable. As a result of this precaution, potentially important differences across children are distributed across the different groups.
A developmental design in which investigators study the same sample of participants over time, taking measures of their behaviour or ability at specified intervals.
Correspondence between the measures, or dependent variables, used at two different points in time
Improvement in participants' performance as a result of the repeated exposure to the measures of those abilities
A particular group of generation of participants, such as infants born in the same year.
A developmental design in which two or more age groups of participants are compared in terms of their behaviour or ability at the same point.
A problem in cross-sectional research, in which age differences may actually stem from generational, or cohort, differences.