Chapter 9 - Language and Communication Flashcards Preview

PSYC 3316 - Infancy > Chapter 9 - Language and Communication > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Language and Communication Deck (24)
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1

Phonology

Sound patterns of language

2

Semantics

Meanings of word or signs

3

Grammar

Systems of rules for combining words or signs

4

Pragmatics

Using language for particular purposes in specific social contexts

5

Intermodal preferential looking procedure (IPLP)

A research method in which infants are shown two side-by-side videos and hear a word or linguistic stimulus that matches one fo the displays. Infants who understand the linguistic stimulus look longer at the matching video than the non matching video

6

Infant-directed (ID) speech

Modifications that adults make when speaking to infants, producing language that is shorter, more repetitive, higher-pitched, more variable in pitch, and less semantically and grammatically complex than language addressed to adults

7

Phonemes

Linguistically meaningful phonetic categories that signal differences in words through combinations of vowels and consonants

8

Phonetics

A set of vowels and consonants that a particular language uses

9

Perceptual magnet effect

A phenomenon in which acoustic space is altered as a result of increasing sensitivity to native language phonemes and declining sensitivity to nonnative language phonemes

10

Constrained statistical learning

The ability to extract recurring patterns from repeated experience with stimuli

11

Syllables

Combinations of consonants and vowels such as baba and mama

12

Babbling

Patterned but meaningless sequences of reduplicated sounds, such as strings of syllables

13

Holophrase

Infants' first one-word utterances that name objects but also communicates other meanings

14

Overextension

A common error in which children use a word to refer to other object that may be perceptually or functionally similar to the word's correct referent.

15

Underextention

An error in which children apply a word only to a specific instance or fail to use it to refer to other referents for which he word would be correct

16

Referential cues

Verbal and nonverbal behaviours, such as gaze, facial expression, and head orientation, that reflect an individual's attentional focus, intentions, or expectations

17

Whole object assumption

A constraint on learning that guides children to assume that new words refer to whole objects rather than actions, spatial location, or parts or features of an object

18

Taxonomic assumption

A constraint on learning that guides children to assume that new words should be extended top objects within the same category rather than thematic associates

19

Mutual exclusivity assumption

A constraint on learning that guides children to assume that objects will have only one name and to look for a nameless object when they hear a new word

20

Lexical contrast

The ability to learn a new word's meaning by comparing it to words that are already known

21

Emergentist coalition model (ECM)

A theory about early learning that describes children shifting at approximately 12 months of age from a reliance on attentional cues such as perceptual saliency and temporal continuity to a greater dependency on social and linguistic cues, such as eye gaze, social context, and grammar

22

Telegraphic speech

Early two-word and multiword utterances that sound like telegrams because they lack grammatical markers and extra words, such as articles, plural endings, prepositions, and auxiliary verbs

23

Overregularization

An error in which children apply grammatical morphemes to words for which a language makes an exception to the rule

24

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

A genetically based developmental disorder, often diagnosed at 12-24 months, in which individuals vary in the appearance and course of symptoms, but may exhibit language skill deficits and unusual social interactions