Chapter 3 - Genetics, Conception, and Prenatal Development Flashcards Preview

PSYC 3316 - Infancy > Chapter 3 - Genetics, Conception, and Prenatal Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Genetics, Conception, and Prenatal Development Deck (32)
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1

Chromosomes

Physical structures of inheritance consisting of DNA and supporting proteins.

2

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

Molecules that carry genetic code of a cell

3

Genes

Units of hereditary information; each gene is a segment of DNA in a specific location on a chromosome

4

Mitosis

A lifelong process of nuclear division involving the replication of chromosomes and their distribution into two identical nuclei, usually followed by cell division.

5

Sex chromosomes

The pair of sex-determining chromosomes that each human possesses: XX in females and XY in males.

6

Autosomes

Any of the chromosomes other than the sex-determining chromosomes; also referred to as somatic chromosomes

7

Meiosis

The cell division process in which pairs of chromosomes exchange pieces of genetic material, producing chromosomes with new combinations of genes and traits in offspring.

8

Congenital

A characteristic or condition present from birth

9

Sex-linked inheritance

Transmission of characteristics via a sex chromosome.

10

Down Syndrome

A syndrome, also referred to as Trisomy 21, in which there is an extra chromosome 21, resulting in distinctive facial features and other physical characteristics and mild to severe cognitive disabilities

11

Multifactorial Transmission

The interaction of genes and the environment that produces most complex human characteristics.

12

Ovum

Female sex cell

13

Sperm

Male sex cell

14

Zygote

The cell that results when an ovum is fertilized by a sperm cell

15

Monozygotic Twins

Siblings resulting from a single egg; also known as identical

16

Dizygotic Twins

Siblings resulting from two different eggs, also known as fraternal

17

Infertility

The absence of pregnancy after 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse

18

Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

Fertility treatments in which both egg and sperm are handled

19

Germinal Stage

The first prenatal stage, beginning at conception and lasting approximately two weeks

20

Blastocyst

A hollow, spherical structure composed of approximately 100 identical cells, which are formed through mitosis during the first week of conception.

21

Embryo

The tern for a blastocyst that has become implanted in the uterine wall

22

Embryonic Stage

The second prenatal stage, lasting from 2 to 8 weeks after conception

23

Teratogens

Substances such as alcohol, drugs, nicotine, and radiation that are known to cause harm to the developing embryo and fetus

24

Cephalocaudal Principle

The pattern of growth in which development begins in the head and occurs later in the tail of the organism

25

Proximodistal Principle

The pattern of growth in which development begins in the center of the body and moves toward the extremities

26

Placenta

A network of blood vessels, formed from cells in the trophoblast and in the uterine lining, which conveys oxygen and nutrients to the embryo and carries away waste products

27

Umbilical Cord

The structure through which the embryo is connected to the placenta

28

Ectoderm

The outer layer of the developing embryo, which becomes the brain and spinal cord; sensory organs; and skin, nails, hair, and teeth

29

Mesoderm

The middle layer of the inner cell mass, from which the circulatory and excretory systems, muscles, and skeleton develop

30

Endoderm

The inner layer of the inner cell mass, from which the respiratory and digestive systems develop.

31

Fetal Stage

The third prenatal stage, lasting from 8 weeks until birth

32

Neuron

Nerve cell in the brain, comprised of a cell body, axon(s)