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Flashcards in Chapter 2 scientific exploration Deck (10)
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1

Captin James cook

was one of the first to lead such expeditions and managed 3 global voyages in the mid to late 1700s (see the featured image above of the HMS Resolution in Moorea). He mapped a number of major currents throughout the world and wrote the first textbook on oceanography. He was killed in Hawaii on his third expedition.

2

Benjamin Franklin

was the first to map the Gulf Stream in 1769-70 even though he was not the first to discover this boundary current that was well known to other explorers. That title goes to Juan Ponce de Leon in 1513.

3

Captin Matthew Maury

of the US Naval Observatory is often considered to be the first oceanographer. He studied global currents, winds and created a number of bathymetric maps.

4

Sir John Murray

a British scientist, is also considered one of the great founders of oceanography.

5

H.M.S. Challenger Expedition

Murray conceived the epic 1872 4-year H.M.S. Challenger Expedition around the world

6

Charles Darwin

went on a 4-year voyage aboard the H.M.S. Beagle as the ship’s naturalist. Charles Darwin published a number of works on his discoveries, the most notable being the Origin of Species that focussed on the theory of evolution.

7

Marianas Trench

to a depth of 33,300 feet, a feat that was not repeated until 2012 by James Cameron.

8

The early years (1807-1865

this time period is characterized by surveys of the American coastline.

9

The Breakthrough Years (1866-1922)

improvements in acoustic technology enabled the development of better offshore maps as well as the collection and identification of new biological species.

10

The Electronic Years (1923-1970)

with the advent of electronics, instrumentation became more sophisticated so that mapping more of the seafloor and below became possible. Marine research incorporated more international collaboration and explored the atmosphere-ocean interaction.