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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Study Questions Deck (29)
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1

In order for an electron to move to a more distal orbital which of the following must occur?

Energy must be added

2

Valence electrons and their interactions determine the ________ properties of an element.

chemical

3

Subatomic particles called Input Field 1 of 1 neutrons unavailable incorrect _____can be found at various distances from the nucleus

electrons

4

Atoms are composed of a central nucleus which is surrounded by which orbiting particles?

Electrons

5

If two atoms belong to the same element, which of the following must be true?

They must have the same number of protons.

6

The number and configuration of ______ determines the chemical behavior of an atom.

Electrons

7

Where are valence electrons found?

In the outermost energy level only

8

Which subatomic particles are located in the nucleus of an atom

Neutrons
Protons

9

If two atoms have the same number of protons in their nucleus, you can conclude for sure that they

are atoms of the same element

10

How is the crystal structure of salt formed?

Positively charged sodium ions are attracted to negatively charged chloride ions.

11

If two atoms are joined by a polar covalent bond, the atom with the lower electronegativity will have a partial ____ charge.

positive

12

In living organisms, almost all chemical reactions are catalyzed by protein catalysts called

enzymes

13

A group of atoms held together by chemical bonds in a stable association is called which of the following?

molecule

14

Water consists of one oxygen atom joined to two hydrogen atoms by what type of bonds?

covalent

15

The atoms in NaCl are held together by what type of bond?

ionic

16

Water is cohesive. Which describes this feature of water molecules?

They are attracted to each other.

17

Atoms are composed of a central ____ which is surrounded by orbiting ____.

nucleus
electrons

18

If two atoms are joined by a polar covalent bond, the shared electrons will tend to stay closer to the atom with which of the following characteristic?

The higher electronegativity

19

The attraction of water to other polar substances is called

adhesion

20

The amount of heat 1 g of a substance must absorb or lose to change its temperature by 1°C is called

specific heat

21

What does it mean when we say water is adhesive?

It is attracted to other polar molecules and ions.

22

Molecules that are more polar tend to have which of the following characteristics?

A higher heat of vaporization
A higher specific heat

23

When 1 g of sugar is dissolved in 500 mL of water, the sugar is called the Input Field 1 of 2 solute unavailable correct ____ and water is called the ____

solute
solovent

24

Which property of water strongly affects the overall shape of many biological molecules, such as protein, and DNA?

Hydrophobic exclusion

25

What is the charge of a hydroxide ion?

-1

26

A substance that increases [H+] and decreases pH when it dissociates in water is called a(n)

acid

27

A hydrogen ion, formed during the dissociation of water, has a charge of which of the following?

+1

28

When an acid is dissolved in water, how does it change the solution's pH?

It decreases the solution's pH by releasing protons in the solution.

29

A ____ is a substance or a mixture of substances that act to resist changes in pH.

buffer