The nurse understands that the best position for administration of an enema is?
left lateral position
because the sigmoid colon lies on the left side of the lower abdomen.
oxygen and nutrients are supplied to the stomach by —- and the intestine by —
stomach by the gastric artery
intestine by the mesenteric arteries
what is the largest serous membrane in the body?
in the abdominal cavity
The large intestine
ascending segment on the right side of the abdomen
transverse segment extends from right to left in the upper abdomen
descending segment on the left side of the abdomen
sigmoid colon, rectum and the anus completes the terminal portion.
organ that is situated in the left upper portion of the abdomen under the left lobe of the liver and the diaphragm, overlaying most of the pancreas.
what is the inlet to the stomach
which portion of the stomach controls the opening between the stomach and small intestine
what is the purpose of the small intestine?
absorption: process by which nutrients enter the bloodstream through the intestinal walls.
what controls the flow of digested material from the ileum into the cecal portion of the large intestine and prevents reflux of bacterial into the small intestine?
sections of the small intestine
Duodenum: most proximal section, common bile duct and pancreatic duct enter at the ampulla of vater.
Jejunum: the middle section
ileum: distal section.
what is attached to the cecum?
has little or no physiologic function
A double layer of peritoneum that encircles internal organs such as the intestines and contains blood vessels, nerves and lymphatic vessels?
a fold of mesentery that passes from the stomach to organs in the abdominal cavity.it a sheet that has mobility, cushions the abdominal organs against injury and provides insulation against loss of body heat.
sympathetic effect on the GI tract
decreasing gastric secretion and motility
causing the sphincters and blood vessels to constrict.
parasympathetic nerve stimulation effect on the GI tract
increases secretory activities
EXCEPT for the sphincters of the upper esophagus and the external anal sphincter, which are under voluntary control
absence of intrinsic factor in the stomach
Vitamin B12 cannot be absorbed in the ileum.
pernicious anemia is the results.
functions of hydrochloric acid (HCl)
break down food into more absorbable components.
aid in the destruction of most ingested bacteria
which enzyme begins the digestion of starches?
Ptyalin or salivary amylase
important enzyme for protein digestion.
end product of the conversion of pepsinogen from the chief cells
secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
aids in emulsifying ingested fats, making them easier to digest and absorb.
fats, proteins, carbohydrates, sodium and chloride are absorbed in what portion of the small intestine?
B12 and bile salts are absorbed where
what is the primary function of the colon?
reabsorption of water and electrolytes -
organ located behind the ribs in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity.
under normal conditions cannot be palpated as it lies behind the rib cage.
functions off the liver
glucose metabolism conversion of ammonia to urea protein metabolism fat metabolism vitamin and iron storage drug metabolism bile formation bilirubin excretion
The blood the perfuses the liver comes from
portal vein, which drains the GI tract and is rich in nutrients.
hepatic artery and is rich in O2
yellowing of the sclera due to jaundice
bilirubin build up
what will be noted in a stool if the bile is prevented from entering the small intestine?
clay colored stool
endocrine function of the pancreas
secretion of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin
exocrine function of the pancreas
secretion of pancreatic enzymes
high-pitched, high-frequency bowel sounds and abdominal cramping are suggestive of?
partial intestinal obstruction