Exam 2 chapter 24 Flashcards Preview

Nursing 130 Perioperative > Exam 2 chapter 24 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 chapter 24 Deck (25)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

condition characterized by intermittent and recurrent abdominal pain and stool pattern irregularities?

A

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

2
Q

symptoms of IBS

A
constipation 
diarrhea
alternating diarrhea/constipation
abdominal distention
Excessive flatulence
3
Q

The Rome III criteria

A
abd pain and discomfort lasting 3 months
starting at least 6 months ago
The pain has
	relieved by defecation
	onset assoc with change in fx of stool
	onset assoc with change in stool appearance
4
Q

Problems not associated with IBS

A
Anemia
fever
persistent diarrhea
rectal bleeding
severe constipation
weight loss
5
Q

Nutritional therapy for patient with IBS

A
eliminate gas producing foods
	brown beans
	Brussels sprouts 
	cabbage
	cauliflower 
	raw onions
	Grapes
	plums
	raisins
6
Q

what should patient with IBS add to their diet

A

yogurt
fiber
probiotics

7
Q

what medication may be given to a patient with IBS to control diarrhea and fecal urgency

A

Loperamide (Imodium)

8
Q

why may anticholinergic be prescribe for a patient with IBS

A

Pantheline (Pro Banthine)

to decrease smooth muscle spasm decreasing cramping and constipation

9
Q

what medication may be prescribed to treat women with IBS whose chief complaint is chronic constipation

A

Tegaserod (Zelnorm)
it increases the effects of serotonin in the intestines, thereby increasing motility.
SE: diarrhea
Teach pts to report severe diarrhea accompanied by dizziness or orthostatic hypotension.

10
Q

Patient teaching for IBS

A

avoid alcohol and cigarettes
eat at regular times
chew food slowly and thoroughly
fluids should not be taken with meals = abd distention.

11
Q

inflammatory Bowel Disease

A

characterized by recurrent inflammation of the intestinal tract.
periods of remission interspersed with periods of exacerbation
cause is unknown
no cure
Tx relies on medications to treat inflammation and maintain remission.

12
Q

Types of inflammatory bowel diease

A

Ulcerative colitis

Crohn’s disease

13
Q

Ulcerative colitis

A

diffuse inflammation
beginning in the rectum and spreading up the colon in a continuous pattern.
inflammation and ulcerations occur in mucosa and submucosa.
bowel occluded
multiple abscesses develop, break through into submucosa, leaving ulceration.
bleeding and perforation

14
Q

clinical manifestations of ulcerative colitis

A
anorexia
diarrhea (blood common)
fatigue/malaise
abd tenderness/cramping
weight loss
fever
dehydration and electrolyte imbalances
anemia
Vitamin K deficiency
15
Q

what are some complications for ulcerative colitis

A
toxic megacolon
perforation
bleeding 
vascular engorgement 
highly vascular granulation tissue
16
Q

symptoms of toxic megacolon in patient with ulcerative colitis

A

fever
abd pain and distention
vomiting
fatigue

17
Q

what type of surgery will be indicated for a patient with toxic megacolon who does not respond within 24 to 72 hours to medical management?

A

Total colectomy

18
Q

why do patient with IBD have significantly increase risk for osteoporotic fractures

A

decreased bone mineral density

corticosteroid therapy

19
Q

what are some labs to monitor for in patient with ulcerative colitis

A

WBC
H and H
albumin
electrolyte

20
Q

adverse sequelae to the use of corticosteroids are

A
hypertension
fluid retention
cataracts
hirsutism (abnormal hair growth)
adrenal suppression
steroid induced diabetes mellitus
poor wound healing
loss of bone density
21
Q

what is a common procedure performed for strictures of the small intestines?

A

Laparoscope guided strictureplasty

the blocked or narrowed sections of the intestines are widened, leaving the intestines intact.

22
Q

surgical removal of colon

A

colectomies

23
Q

complete excision of colon, rectum and anus

A

proctocolectomy with ileostomy

recommended when the rectum is severely diseased

24
Q

what is the procedure of choice when a rectum can be preserved for a patient with ulcerative colitis

A

restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch

25
Q

chronic, nonspecific inflammatory bowel disorder of unknown origin that can affect any part of the GI

A

Crohn’s disease