Flashcards in Chapter 21 Fire and Life Safety Intiatives Deck (92):
Programs that primarily work to establish and develop the resources needed to counter hazards and threats to safety through prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery.
Fire and Life Safety Initiative Programs
Fire and Life Safety Initiative Programs may also be called what in other communities?
Community Risk Reduction Programs
What is the goal of a Fire and Life safety program?
TO encourage and empower citizens in your community to act in a safe manner to reduce the potential for fires, accidents, or injuries.
The program helps firefighters prepare for threats beyond their control, make plans to reduce the potential for injury or loss, and respond efficiently during the what?
Post incident period
Follows a five step process that communities can use to develop a risk reduction program.
Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment. (THIRA)
What are the five steps in a THIRA?
Identify the threat and hazard. Give the threat and hazard context. Examine the core capabilities. Set Capability Targets. Apply the result.
Requires a review of historical data, trends, and statistical analysis.
Identifying the threat and hazard.
Threats and hazards are divided into these three categories.
Natural hazards. Technological hazards. Threats or human cause hazards.
Explanation of the conditions under which the threat or hazard might occur is developed. Includes a possible time and location as well as the portion of the population that would be at the greatest risk.
Give the Threats Context
The effects of the threat or hazard are combined with the outcomes the community wants with in a reasonable time. This is then compared to the capabilities of the community to see if it can be meet. Mutual aid agreements and contingency plans are made to meet the need.
Examine Core Capabilities.
Set targets and goals that will result in the greatest benefit within the desired time frame.
Set Capability Targets
With assessment result jurisdictions can develop action plans, coordinate activities with other levels of government, purchase materials, and educate the public.
A good model to deliver a fire prevention program is the five E's. What are they?
Education. Enforcement. Economic Incentives. Engineering. Emergency Response.
How do fire departments implement Enforcement?
Building, Fire, and Life Safety code enforcement.
While the Engineering portion is usually the responsibility of manufactures, designers, and contractors, the installation and use are usually mandated by what?
Federal, State, or local laws and regulations.
Is designed to inform citizens about unsafe behaviors and provide information on how to change those behaviors.
Fire and Life Safety Education.
What three things must you know to be effective in your fire and life safety education?
The hazard you want to prevent. The messages that apply. The audience for the message.
A condition that would increase the likely hood of a fire starting or contribute to the size/spread of a fire.
Unsafe behaviors or actions that can result in injury, death, or property damage not associated with a fire.
What percent of accidents are caused by unsafe behavior? What percent of accidents are caused by unsafe conditions?
Behavior = 96% Conditions = 4%
Name three categories of hazards that can benefit from fire and life safety education.
Unsafe Behaviors. Unsafe Conditions. Hazardous Processes.
May exist temporarily or as a constant function of an industrial or manufacturing site.
How can hazardous processes be reduced?
Enforcement of codes, inspections, and education.
What are the four categories that fire and life safety messages can be broken into?
Prevent (fire and burns). Prepare ( for a fire emergency). Protect (yourself in a emergency). Persuade (other to be safe).
What is the Danger Zone around a oven?
Candles should be keep how far away from other combustibles?
Space heaters should be keep how far away from combustibles?
Set water heaters to what temp?
Name the five age ranges that fire and life safety messages can be broken into.
Preschool. Elementary. Middle School. High School. Adults. Older Adults.
What is the youngest group that fire and life safety messages can be effectively taught?
Preschool 3-5 years
How do preschool children learn?
By seeing and doing.
Name six appropriate messages for preschool age children.
Match and lighter safety (positive message). Stop, drop, and roll. Home escape (in segments). Firefighters as helpers. Bike Helmets. Poison Prevention.
What age do most poisonings take place?
5 and younger.
Name 4 examples of fire and life safety messages for elementary age children.
Smoke alarm response. Survival Skills. Use an misuse of fire. Home escape plan.
Name seven examples of fire and life safety messages for middle school age children.
Burn care and prevention. Fire Science. Health and safety (CPR). Cooking safety. Babysitting. Fire setting and other risky activities. The importance of home exit drills.
How do you get a high school student to respond to a fire and life safety message?
Make it relevant to them.
Give five examples of fire and life safety messages for high school students.
Safe driving. Smoke alarm safety. Fire careers. Preparation to live independently. College dormitory fire safety.
What three things should a fire and life safety message include when being presented to adults.
Solving problems. Completing tasks. or Handling lifestyle choices.
Give five examples of fire and life safety messages for Adults.
Smoke alarms. Residential sprinklers. EDITH and fire drills. Disaster planning and preparedness. Injury prevention.
Name three safety characteristics of older adults.
One of three high risk groups. Twice as likely to die from fire. Greatest risk for injury due to fire, trips, and falls.
What is the leading cause of fire deaths among older adults? What is the leading cause of fire injuries among older adults?
Death = Soaking materials. Injuries = cooking fires
What are four messages that can be given to older adults for a fire and life safety presentation?
Safe Cooking. Careless smoking. Electrical appliances and equipment. Falls.
What are the two reasons structure surveys are performed by fire companies?
To become familiar with public access structures and workplaces. Provide a public service to homeowners and renters in their residences.
Name two opportunity's that come from conducting a fire survey.
Learn about the community. Opportunity to distribute fire and life safety literature to the community.
What are the three goals of a juvenile firesetter program?
Identify at risk children. Assess the cause of their obsession. Intervene in their behavioral development.
What percent of arson arrest are of children under the age of 18?
T or F Juvenile arson arrest are proportionally higher than any other type of crime?
What was the average property value loss in 250,000 incidents of juvenile firesetting?
What is the second leading cause of fatalities in residential fires?
Name the four categories of juvenile firesetters.
Curiosity/experimental. Troubled/crisis. Delinquent/criminal. Pathological/emotionally disturbed.
What should firefighters watch for in hopes of identifying juvenile firesetters?
Trends in fires
What are four things that can be done to try to identify juveniles at risk of becoming firesetters?
Include juvenile firesetters info in presentations. Look for indicators on calls. Be aware of actions of family members and friends. Demonstrate fire safe behavior.
What is the best tool to prevent firesetters?
What are three things children can be taught to help prevent firesetters?
Fire is a tool not a toy. Use fire safely under adult supervision. How fire destroys when not properly used.
What are four things adults can be taught to prevent firesetters?
Categories of firesetters and indicators. Keeping lighters and matches out of children's reach. Supervising children when fire is present. Making children aware of the danger of fire. Why only trained babysitters should be hires.
Curiosity/experimental firesetter characteristics.
2-10 age. Don't understand fire destruction. Access to fire or fire starters. Unsupervised. Hide when lighting fires. Imitate actions of adults.
Troubled/ crisis firesetter characteristics.
Mostly boys of all ages. Have set 2 or more simple fires. Use fire to express emotion. May not understand consequences. Will most likely continue if not treated. "Cry for help".
Delinquent / criminal firesetter characteristics.
Teens with a history of firesetting, truancy, antisocial, drug/alcohol abuse. Knows the danger of fire and consequences. Act of vandalism intended to destroy. May involve peers. Has targets. Punishment involves criminal prosecution.
Pathological/emotionally disturbed firesetter characteristics.
Boys or girls with a life long fascination of fire. Set multiple fires that are very destructive and sophisticated. Fires may be random, ritualized, or intended to destroy. Chronic emotional problems. Requires a psychiatric diagnosis.
These are part of both the engineering and enforcement components of the fire and life safety program.
Codes and standards.
Regulate both construction materials and design and occupant behavior and processes.
Fire and life safety codes.
A way for communities to standardize the adoption processes without having to rewrite codes themselves.
What are the two model code organizations in the US?
International Code Council (ICC). National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).
Fire code Handbook
Life safety code (occupancy classification).
Building construction and safety code.
What code do buildings under the jurisdiction of the Department of Defense follow?
Unified Facility Criteria (UFC)
When can a code be enforced?
When the AHJ adopts them.
How often are most model codes revised?
Every 3-5 years
What are the two main aspects of code enforcement?
Inspection and Investigation
Standard for Professional Qualifications for Fire Inspector and Plan Examiner.
How can information gathered from fire investigations be used?
Develop and monitor effectiveness of the fire and life safety program. Determine responsibly and bring justice. Make products, processes, and materials safer.
Must be treated as a educational opportunity and not as a enforcement tools.
Home safety surveys.
What percent of fire deaths in 2010 occurred in residential structures?
List common causes of residential fires.
Malfunctioning heaters and water heaters. Combustibles to close to heater or lamp. Unsafe cooking. Smoking. Overloaded extension cords and multiple outlet devices. Exposed wiring. Defective electrical appliances. Improper use of combustible/flammable liquids. Poor housekeeping/hoarding. Unattended candles.
Name the five leading causes of residential accidents according to the home safety council.
Falls. Poisoning. Fires. Airway Obstruction. Drowning
What are three main objectives when conducting a home safety survey?
Preventing accidental fires. Improving life safety conditions. Helping the occupant understand how to improve existing conditions.
What are two advantages of a increase in goodwill for conducting home safety surveys.
Support when annual budgets are being made. Support during community fund raising events.
List basic presentation skills.
Audience centered. Good development of ideas. Good organization of ideas. Best choice of words. Good delivery skills. Good vocal characteristics. Conversational tone. Positive Attitude. Appropriate use of humor. Personal style.
List 5 good vocal characteristics.
Pronunciation. Good grammar. Inflection. Variety. Enunciation. Projection.
List five demographic characteristics that audiences can be divided into.
Age. Education. Cultural Diversity. Socioeconomic level. Physical ability.
What are the three high risk groups?
Under 5 years of age. Over 65 years of age. People with disabilities or special needs.
What three things must a safety message be, to be effective?
Accurate. Positive. Specific to the target audience.
What are four generally accepted organizational sequences?
Known-to-unknown. Simple-to-complex. Whole-part-whole. Step-by-step.
The national association for education of young children defines "young children" as what?
Birth to 8 years old
For children presentations lasting ............ or less, are ideal.
Ideas to keep in mind when giving young children fire presentations.
Loud noises scare kids. Use short simple sentences. Children interpret what you say and what you do very literally. Children are active learners, more involvement means more learning. Children need to practice, practice, practice-one time is not enough for any message. Children learn best by using all 5 senses. Repeat and reinforce the message at every opportunity. Kids love repetition.
T or F When giving station tours, all groups should be keep together and if necessary, larger groups should be divided into smaller groups with a fire fighter assigned to each group.
The ultimate purpose of fire survey documentation is to accomplish the following goals.
Become familiar with structures, there uses, and hazards. Recognize existing hazards. Visualize how tactics may or may not apply. Develop new tactics. Determine if occupants have disabilities or medical problems that will hinder self evacuation. Determine if there is a language barrier with occupants.
When the survey of the exterior of a building is complete you should go where next?
To the roof or basement.
Each floor of a building should be looked in succession in a .................. way.