Flashcards in Chapter 27 - The Aftermath of Global War: The Cold War and Domestic Politics, 1945-1952 Deck (46)
Which present consolidated and institutionalized the New Deal state?
Harry S. Truman
What type of politicians was Harry S. Truman?
Pragmatic and deal-making. Not an idealistic reformer.
What were the five domestic policy themes that marked the Truman administration?
1) Economic Prosperity
2) No extension of New Deal Legislation Except Social Security and Public Housing.
3) Token, but not material support for, the Civil Rights Movement.
4) Held Together, But Did Not Expand, The New Deal Coalition That Kept the Democratic Party in Control
5) The Firing of Douglas MacArthur.
What type of liberal was Harry S. Truman?
What type of liberal was Henry Wallace (FDR's VP)?
How was one way the Truman Administration aided the transition of the economy from war-time production?
The GI Bill.
How did the GI Bill help transition the economy smoothly?
As returning soldiers went to college, the number of staff and the number of colleges needed to grow to accommodate the record number of students. This created new economic opportunities and maintain levels of growth.
What council was created to give Harry S. Truman economic advisement?
The Council of Economic Advisors.
In the 1950s, who was public housing for?
Middle-Class, NOT POOR, Families.
What would token pressure gain the Harry S. Truman Administration and Black Americans?
The 1954 Decision in Brown v. Board of Education.
What groups did the New Deal Coalition contain?
What views did MacArthur espouse about the Korean War that were unpopular among military experts and President Truman?
An expanded Korean War into China and the use of Nuclear Weapons against China.
What are two important things to note about the decision to fire MacArthur?
1) It was done only after extensive consultation with leading military men who argued that MacArthur should be fired.
2) It reaffirmed the Constitution's establishing of civilian control over the military.
How popular was Harry S. Truman in the end of his presidency?
Less popular than Nixon.
How do historians assess Harry S. Truman's presidency?
A no-nonse administration that dealt effectively with difficult issues. (High B Grade)
What is another term used to describe the Second Red Scare?
When did the Second Red Scare sweep America?
Later 1940s - 1956.
What sparked the Second Red Scare?
Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed to have inside information and names of communist spies that the U.S. government and military was protecting.
List two incidents that seem to confirm McCarthy's assertion?
1) Alger Hiss
2) Whittaker Chambers
Why did the Second Red Scare occur?
The sudden string of unexpected communist victories that made it seem like communism might be winning.
What are the three deep-seated reasons why the US and USSR ignited a Cold War after 1945?
1) The USSR and US defined national security differently.
2) The USSR and US refused to abandon Europe to the other and saw them as vital to their own national security.
3) The relationship between Stalin and Truman deteriorated rapidly and mistrust and fear killed diplomacy.
How did the US define national security during the Cold War?
As faith in democratic institutions. Nations that avoided tyranny would be safe and peaceful.
How did the USSR define national security during the Cold War?
As a group of buffer states to prevent invasion.
How did the US manage its "empire" in Europe?
By invitation. Europe wanted the US involved and proactive.
How did the USSR manage its "empire" in Europe?
By imposition. They took over nations they wanted for security reasons.
Why was the relationship between Truman and Stalin so susceptible to deterioration?
FDR failed to accurately communicate the outcome of his talks with Stalin. FRD often painted a sunny picture of negotiating with Stalin which was highly inaccurate. When the Soviets occupied Eastern Europe, as FDR knew at Yalta, Truman perceived it as a break in trust.
What is the three-stage model for understanding U.S. post-war policy development?
1) The U.S. Believed the Soviets Could Be Worked With After Compromises Such as USSR control over the Baltic states and the creation of the UN.
2) USSR actions in late 1945-1946 destroyed the above assumption. The election in Poland and the Long Telegram from Kennan confirmed American fears and convinced the United States to pursue a policy of containment.
3) Stalin's actions attempting to create security for the USSR had the consequence of making the USSR even more insecure.
What actions did the Soviets take in late 1945-1946 that alarmed the U.S.?
1) Stalin's public declaration that communism and capitalism are incompatible and that war was inevitable.
2) The launch of COMINFORM to dictate policy to communist leaders and parties around the globe.
3) The USSR's overthrow of Czechoslovakia
4) The Berlin Blockade
What type of containment did Kennen advocate and what type did the U.S. ultimately adopt?
Kennen - Strategic intervention of only important stakes.
U.S. - Global containment. Everywhere challenge communism.