Chapter 30 - The Retreat From Political Liberalism and the End of the Vietnam Saga Flashcards Preview

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What is arguably the post important theme in post-1970 American History?

The decline, retreat, and redefinition of political liberalism.


Define American Political Liberalism.

1) Optimism that Big Government can and Should Solve Society's Most Vexing Problems
2) Confidence in Politicians and Political Solutions
3) Willingness to pay higher taxes to pay for social welfare programs.
4) Economic Policies That is somewhat in Favor of Redistributing Wealth From Rich to Poor to Close the Gap.


What are the principles of the belief that has risen to oppose political liberalism?

1) Pessimism Regarding Bug Government's Abilities and Virtues
2) A desire to Shrink the Government
3) A Belief That Some Social Problems May Be Too Daunting and unsolvable for the government to tackle
4) Distrust for Politicians
5) Unwillingness to Pay Higher Taxes to Fund Social Welfare Programs and a Desire for lower Taxes.


Why is there a post-1970s retreat from political liberalism?

1) Vietnam - Political Leaders Deception that Forces Were not In Cambodia under Nixon.
2) Watergate - Shook the American public confidence of the American people in government.
3) The Bitter Fruit of the Great Society - Created High Expectations But Only Achieved Mediocre Results
4) Declining Economy - World War II Devastated Countries Were Now Economy Competitors and the Oil Embargo Cost a Lot of Money.


How did Nixon term his attempt to withdraw from Vietnam?

Peace with Honor.


What Strategies did Nixon Use to Attempt to Withdraw from Vietnam and Save Face?

1) Vietnamization - Make the Vietnamese do more of the fighting while the US gradually withdrew troops
2) The strongest aerial bombing of North Vietnam during the war to bring North Vietnam to the negotiating table.
3) Nixon Expanded the War into Laos and Cambodia to cut off NVA and Viet Cong Supply Lines that Ran Through the Country Without the Approval of Congress.
4) Nixon Rejected the Domino Theory to some extent. He was not convinced that a communist Vietnam weakened the US position.


When did Nixon get his peace with honor?



How did the US mollify the opposing government of South Vietnam?

By giving them enough fighter aircraft to make them the fourth largest air force in the world, tanks and other supplies.


What is the name of the peace with honor with North Vietnam?

The Paris Agreement.


Why was North Vietnam able to reinvade South Vietnam?

Cause the South Vietnamese Government was Corrupt and Mismanaged the Economy to Produce 90% inflation.


When did the Vietnam War Officially End?

April 1975.


Who won the military aspect of the Vietnam War?

1) The US bombing campaigns were incredibly successful. Over 1 million NVA/Viet Cong casualties for 50,000 U.S. Casualties
2) The Viet Song refused to surrender and fought a war of attrition (Sound Familiar?)
3) South Vietnam Started to Distrust US Soldiers and Join the Viet Cong.


What are the four political reasons why the war in Vietnam was lost?

1) The South Vietnamese Government Was Ineffective and Unresponsive to the People.
2) The People turned more against the US and Saigon as the war progressed. 50% apathetic at the start of the war to heavy anti-US majority
3) The American People Withdrew Their Support From the war.
4) The NVA and Viet Cong were incredibly tenacious and willing to sacrifice all for their cause.


Why could the Vietnam War be viewed as a success?

Engaging in Vietnam sent a Message to Moscow that it would engage in full scale combat to prevent Soviet Expansion. In the overall Cold War context it prevented further skirmishes until the end of the Cold War in Afghanistan.


Why could the Cold War be viewed as a failure?

1) Lost South Vietnam
2) Killed the Great Society
3) Cause Economic Disruption From Trying to Pursue Guns and Butter
4) Decrease Americans trust in government.
5) A Fragmented and contentious America


What are the nine major effects of the War in Vietnam?

1) Americans Trust in Government was Shattered.
2) Aided the U.S.'s retreat from American political liberalism
3) Cultural and social disunity became the norm
4) The realization that American only had limited power in world affairs took root.
5) The American way of doing things was questioned.
6) The war related economic recession would grip the nation until 1982.
7) Restricted Executive Power
8) The end of conscription
9) 18 Year olds subject to the draft got voting rights.


List the major social protest movements in the Late 1960s and 1970s

1) Feminists
2) Hispanics
3) Native Americans
4) Homosexuals.
5) Hippies/Youth Counterculture
6) College Students
7) The Vietnam War Protest Movements


What did the National Organization of Women accomplish for Feminism?

1) Title IX
2) Roe v. Wade
3) Equal Rights Amendment that Failed


Were women mistreated in the 1960s?

1) Women, according to Kennedy, were supposed to be in the home.
2) Banks could refuse to issue credit cards to unmarried women and a husband's cosignatory was required.
3) Women were prohibited from serving on juries
4) Women Could not Attend Ivy Leagues except the University of Pennsylvania and Cornell until 1969.
5) Womens college athletics were treated inferior to men's. No funding or equipment
6) Women only accounted for 9% of all medical degrees, 7% of all law degrees, and 1% of all dental degrees.


What did Hispanic protest movements center on?

The plight of the Hispanic Farm worker. Protests were led by Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers Union.


How did Native American Indians attempt to gain justice?

1) Sit-ins on important sites
2) Protests and Armed Takeovers
3) Lawsuits against the government


What incident sparked the Homosexual rights movement?

A NYC police raid on the Stonewall Inn that flooded into the streets.


Why were there a significant number of special interest protests?

1) The success of the Civil Rights Movement and an attempt to copy those efforts
2) The Great Society failed to meet high expectations so people tried to meet those through protest.


What president brought affirmative action to life?

Richard Nixon.


Who did Nixon claim supported him?

The Silent Majority.


Which President created the EPA?

Richard Nixon


How did Nixon treat Great Society Programs?

He restructured and streamlined them but did not eliminate them.


How much did the federal registar grow from 1936-1980?

It went from 2,620 pages to over 80,000 pages.


What was the Family Assistance Plan?

Consolidated all different social welfare programs into a single payment to families.


What economic problem did Nixon face that defied typical economics?

High Unemployment and High Inflation. (Stagflation.)