# Chapter 3 Flashcards

1
Q

The direction of forces from Loads acting on the interior of structural members is expressed as?

A

Stress

2
Q

The force is with any structural support system that resists applied loads are referred to as?

A

Reactions

3
Q

When a structural support system can support a load equal to or greater than the applied loads?

A

Equilibrium

4
Q

Any effect that a structure must be designed to resist, including the forces of gravity, wind, earthquakes or soil pressure

A

5
Q

Factors that work against the strength of any piece of apparatus, equipment, or structural support.

A

Stress

6
Q

Measurement of force intensity is calculated as force divided by area

A

Stress

7
Q

Any interaction that may change the motion of an object. Simple measure of weight, usually expressed in pounds

A

Force

8
Q

A reaction with any structural component that opposes a vertical load.

A

Bending moment

9
Q

Force acting to draw an object toward the earths center, force is equal to the objects wait

A

Gravity

10
Q

The most common load impose on a structure via the weight of the structures components, content, and any occupancy activity

A

Gravity

11
Q

Stress is within the material are classified according to?

A

The direction of the force

12
Q

Pulls the material apart; referred to as?

A

Tension. Referred to as tensile stress

13
Q

Squeezes the material: referred to as?

A

Compression. Referred to as compressive stress

14
Q

Slides on the plane of the material passed an adjacent plane

A

Shear

15
Q

Vertical or horizontal force that pulls material apart for example the force exerted on the bottom cord of a truss

A

Tension

16
Q

Stress in a structural member that tends to stretch the member or pull it apart; often used to know the greatest amount of force a component Can withstand without failure

A

Tensile stress

17
Q

Vertical And/or horizontal forces that push the mass of a material together for example the force exerted on the top chord of a truss

A

Compression

18
Q

Stress resulting went to forces act on a body in opposite directions in parallel adjacent planes

A

Shear stress

19
Q

Theoretical slice of a three dimensional structural component to enable area and stress calculations

A

Cross section

20
Q

Unique stresses are caused by external load alignments including:

A

21
Q

Application of forces caused by earth quakes

A

22
Q

Most significant force generated by earthquakes

A

Lateral loads that create horizontal motion

23
Q

Forces produced by earthquakes travel in waves. These are the most complex forces that can be exerted on a building.

A

Seismic forces

24
Q

Area of discontinue it he in the earths crust associated with movement by tectonic plates

A

Fault

25
Q

Movement of a shockwave through the ground or structure after a large detonation: may cause additional damage to surrounding structures

A

Seismic effect

26
Q

Absorb resonant energy as the structure begins to move

A

Damping mechanisms

27
Q

Isolates the building from the horizontal movement of the earths surface

A

Base isolation

28
Q

Two common methods of base isolation

A

Shear systems. Sliding systems

29
Q

Load that exerts a horizontal force against a structure. Calculated as a live load.

A

30
Q

Includes seismic activity and soil pressure against vertical restraints such as retaining walls and foundations

A

31
Q

Movements of relatively large amplitude resulting from a small force applied at the natural frequency of a structure

A

Resonance

32
Q

Structural accommodation that allows building sections to move independently of each other

A

Expansion joint

33
Q

Structural element designed to control vibration from resonance

A

Damping mechanism

34
Q

Some types of structural stiffness are particularly effective against seismic loads, two types are:

A

Sheer walls and cross bracing. Structural support redundancy.

35
Q

Typical truss Shapes span distances of?

A

22 to 70 feet, but trust spans in modern construction may exceed 100 feet

36
Q

Lightweight steel trusses known as:

A

Bar joist

37
Q

Light weight wood or metal trusses known as?

A

Truss joist

Have become common in the floor construction taking the place of solid joist

38
Q

These are a critical factor in the strength of the truss

A

Connectors in truss assemblies

39
Q

Three dimensional trust structures

A

Space frame

40
Q

Steel stud walls:

Studs are placed

A

12 to 16” apart

41
Q

Membrane structures-

Fabrics weigh less than other roof systems:

A

About 2 pounds per square foot

42
Q

The dynamic load of a stream discharging 250 gallons per minute may impact it’s target with___pounds of water per minute

A

2,080

43
Q

In some cases, dewatering operations will be necessary because water at a depth of 3 inches adds a static load of___pounds per square foot

A

21