Chapter 3 - Exercise Physiology (Paper 2) Flashcards Preview

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Injuries can occur to what?



What are the two most common places for injury?

Ankles and knees


What are some causes of injury?

-Inadequate preparation
-Poor equipment
-Poor technique
-Overloading to soon
-Collision or fall in competition


What are the two types of sport injuries?

Acute and chronic


What are chronic injuries often known as?

Over-use injuries


What are acute injuries?

A sudden injury caused by a specific impact or traumatic event where a sharp pain is felt immediately.


What are chronic injuries?

A chronic injury occurs after playing sport or exercise for a long time. They are often referred to as over-use injuries.


What are the signs that someone is suffering acute injuries?

-Sudden, severe pain
-Swelling around the injured site
-Not being able to bear weight
-Restricted movement
-Extreme leg or arm weakness
-A protruding bone or a joint that is visibly out of place.


What is a fracture?

A break or a crack in a bone is a fracture.


What are the different types of fractures?

-Simple or closed
-Compound or open


What is a simple or closed fracture?

It is a clean break to a bone that doesn't penetrate through the skin or damage any surrounding tissue.


What is a compound or open fracture?

A compound or open fracture is when the soft tissue or skin has been damaged.


Which fracture is worse?

Compound or open because there is a higher risk of infection.


What are dislocations?

These occur at joints and are very painful. It happens when the ends of bones are forced out of position.


What are strains?

A strain occurs when the muscles fibres are stretched too far and tear.


What are strains also called?

Pulled or torn muscles.


When do strains tend to occur?

Where a performer continually accelerates and decelerates suddenly. They also occur in elite athletes because the intensity of their training is high and they overuse muscle groups.


What are sprains?

Sprains occur to ligaments when excessive force is applied to a joint, a sprain can occur where the ligaments is stretched too far or tears.


What is the difference between strains and sprains?

Strains occur to the muscle fibres whereas sprains occur to the ligaments. Nevertheless, they are both caused by being stretched too far and tearing.


What is the most common sprain?

The ankle sprain


What are the two types of ankle sprains?

The inversion where the lateral ligament is sprained and the eversion where the medial ligament is sprained.


What are the acute injuries?



What are the signs someone is suffering a chronic injury?

-Pain when you compete or exercise
-A dull ache when you rest


What are ligaments?

Strong bands of tissue around joints that join bone to bone.


What are tendons?

Tendons connect muscles to bone and are strong bands of tissue. When muscles contract they help move the bones and joints.


What is tendonitis?

Tendonitis is an over-use injury that causes pain and inflammation of the tendon.


What is Achilles tendonitis?

The Achilles tendon is located at the back of the ankle and is the largest tendon in the body. It connects the gastrocnemius to the heel bone and is used for walking, running and jumping, so when we do a lot of regular activity it can be prone to tendonitis.


What is a stress fracture?

A stress fracture is an over-use injury where the area becomes tender and swollen.


Where do stress fractures most commonly occur and why?

They most commonly occur in the weight bearing bones of the legs, often when there is an increase in the amount of exercise or the intensity of an activities is increased too quickly. It happens when the muscles become fatigued so they are no longer able to absorb the added shock of exercise. The fatigued muscle eventually transfers the stress overload to bone and the result is a tiny crack called a stress fracture.


What is lateral epicondylitis?

The medical term for tennis elbow.


What is tennis elbow?

Tennis elbow is an over-use injury and occurs in the muscles attached to the elbow that are used to straighten the wrist. The muscles and tendons become inflamed and tiny tears occur on the outside of the elbow. The area becomes very sore and tender.


What is the medical term of tennis elbow?

Lateral epicondylitis


How can tennis elbow be caused?

Any activity that places repeated stress on the elbow can cause tennis elbow.


Name injury prevention methods?

-protective equipment
-Flexibility training
-Taping and bracing


What is screening?

Screening can be used to identify those at risk of complications from exercise, prepare performers for their sport, enhance performance and reduce injury.


Give an example of a form screening used by athletes?

CRY heart screening.CRY stands for 'Cardiac risk in the young'


What does ECG stand for?

Stands for electrocardiogram machine where electrodes are placed onto the player's chest and the wires connect to an ECG machine and a printout is produced of the heart's electrical activity.


How can screening be used to prevent injuries?

This involves assessing muscle imbalances, core strength, range of joint movement, postural alignment and mobility. If any problems are detected, a conditioner can select a specific training programme for improvement thus reducing the chance of a potential injury while at the same time enhancing performance.


What are the disadvantages of screening?

Some screening tests are not 100% accurate and may miss a problem (false negative) or can identify a problem that doesn't exists (false positive). It can also increase anxiety when an athletes finds out they have a health problem or are more susceptible to injury.


How does the warm up prevent injury?

The warm up helps prepare the body for exercise and should always be carried out before the start of any training session. Performing a warm up will reduce the possible risk of injury by increasing the elasticity of the muscle tissue. This happens because a warm-up will increase the body's muscle temperature. Heart rate and respiratory rate also increase, which increases blood flow and therefore the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the working muscle. This prepares the muscles, tendons and joints for some strenuous activity.


What is the first stage of any workout? Why?

The first stage of any workout is to perform some kind of cardiovascular exercise, such as jogging, which gently increases your heart rate. This will increase cardiac output and breathing and more blood is directed through the vascular shunt to the working muscles. Together, these three factors will increase the amount of oxygen being delivered to the muscles.


What is the second stage of a warm up?

The second stage is the performance of stretching/flexibility exercises, especially with those whose joints and muscles that will be most active during the training session.


What is the third stage of a warm up?

The third stage should involve movement patterns that are to be carried out, for example, practicing shooting in basketball or netball, or dribbling in hockey or football.


What is flexibility training?

Flexibility training should involve the joints and muscles that will be most active during the activity.


What is active stretching?

When a stretched position is held by the contraction of an agonist muscle.


What are the different types of flexibility training?



What is passive stretching?

Uses an external force to help the stretched position.


What is static stretching?

When the muscle is held in a stationary position for more than 10 seconds or more.


What is ballistic stretching?

Uses swinging and bouncing movements.


Who should use ballistic stretching and who shouldn't?

Only athletes or individuals who are extremely flexible who is trying to push their body beyond the limits of their range of movement.


What is taping?

Taping a weak joint can help with support and stability to reduce the risk of injury.


Where are common places to be taped?

The ankle as ankle sprains are a common injury in sport and often taping is used during the recovery period to give the ankle extra support to prevent further injury. Taping can also be used on the muscles and is applied directly to the skin to provide controlled support as the muscles moves.


What is the type of tape used on muscles called and why is it different?

It is called kinesiology tape and expands as the muscle contracts (more elastic than the tape used on joints).


What is bracing?

Bracing involves hinge supports, and is used to give extra stability to muscles and joints that are weak or have been previously injured.


What is the aim of bracing?

Their aim is to prevent further injury.


What are the most common forms of bracing?

Braces for the ankle and the knee are the most common in sport.


What are the injury rehabilitation methods?

-Proprioceptive training
-Strength training
-hyperbaric chambers


What is the function of injury rehabilitation methods?

All injured sports performers want to know how long it will be before they can return to regular exercise. A long recovery time can be very frustrating. Injury rehabilitation methods aim to decrease the recovery time.


What is proprioceptive training?

Proprioceptive is a subconscious process using a system of receptor nerves located in the muscle, joints and tendons. For smooth co-ordinated movements, the brain needs to have an accurate knowledge of an arm or leg position and how fast these body parts are moving. Proprioceptors deliver vital information about this, together with our visual and auditory senses and our sense of touch.


What does proprioceptive training involve?

It involves hoping, jumping and balance exercise to restore lost proprioception and teach the body to control the position of an injured joint subconsciously.


What is an example of equipment used as a form of proprioceptive training?

A balance board which is used to heal injured ankles as it re-educates the body to quickly react to the wobbly movements without thinking about it.


What is strength training?

Strength training uses a resistance of some kind of weight. The resistance can be weight machines or free weights, body weight or the use of therabands. Whatever the type of training, it prepares the body fro exercise, reducing the chance of injury.


What are the 4 main types of strength training?

-Free weights
-Machine weights
-Body weight


What is free weight training?

Free weights such as dumbells and kettle bells have to be controlled as they are lifted. By not relying on a machine, the muscles have to stabilise the weight as well as lift it.


What is machine weight training?

Here the machine has a lot of control so in the early stages of an injury the focus can be on just improving strength, starting with low weights and gradually building this up.


What is body weight training?

Using the body as the resistance often involves core body exercises such as the plank.


What is theraband training?

Therabands are made of latex and can have different strengths. Light resistance bands are used for rehabilitation and as the injury improves bands with greater resistance are used.


What are hyperbaric chambers and what is the aim?

The aim of hyperbaric chambers is to reduce the recovery time for an injury. The chamber is pressurised rather like an aeroplane and there is 100% oxygen. The pressure increases the amount of oxygen that can be diffused to the injured area. The excess oxygen dissolves into the blood plasma where it can reduce swelling and both stimulate white blood cell activity and increase the blood supply at the injury site.


What is cryotherapy?

The use of cold temperatures to treat an injury.


What does RICE stand for?

Stands for rest, ice, compression, elevation.


What is cryotherapy normally used for?

For common sporting injuries such as muscle strains.


How does RICE a form of cryotherapy work?

The RICE procedure involves the use of ice which has an analgesic effect and this can limit pain and swelling by decreasing blood flow to the injured area.


Ice baths are a form of cryotherapy but what are they used for?

They are used for recovery after exercise.


What does whole body cryotherapy involve?

It involves the use of cryogenic chambers to reduce pain and inflammation. The chamber is cooled by liquid nitrogen to a temperature below -100 degrees and the patient remains in the chamber protected with socks, gloves and a swimming costume for up to 3 minutes.


How do cryogenic chambers work to heal injuries?

The freezing gas surrounds the body so that the blood from the arms and legs flows towards the core in an attempt to keep the body warm and protect the vital organs from the extreme cold. On leaving the chamber, the blood returns back to the arms and legs full of oxygen which helps heal injured cells.


What is hydrotherapy? How does it work?

Hydrotherapy takes place in warm water and is used to improve blood circulation, relieve pain and relax muscles. Typically hydrotherapy pools are heated to approximately 35-37 degrees which increases blood circulation.


What is the main advantage of hydrotherapy?

The buoyancy of the water helps to support body weight, which reduces the load on joints and therefore allows for more exercise than is permitted on land. Exercising against the resistance of water helps to strengthen the injured area.


What are the types of hydrotherapy exercises?

They include squats, lunges, walking and running with or without a buoyancy aid in the water. Some hydrotherapy pools even have under water treadmills.


What are the recovery methods from exercise?

-Compression garments
-Foam rollers
-Cold therapy
-Ice baths


What is deep vein thrombosis (DVT)?

A blood clot in one of the deep veins in the body.


How do compression garments helps with recovery from exercise?

They help to improve blood circulation and prevent medical problems such as deep vein thrombosis. They are generally used by athletes to help blood lactate removal and reduce both inflammation and the symptoms associated with DOMS.


What is soft tissue?

Includes tendons, ligaments, muscles, nerves and blood vessels.


What is the importance of a massage after exercise?

Sports massage is a popular form of treatment which can prevent or relieve soft tissue injuries. Regular exercise can result in a build up of tension in a muscle which will place stress on the muscle, as well as joints, tendons and ligaments.


What are the benefits of a sports massage and how do they help a performer to recover from exercise?

-Increases blood flow to soft tissue so more oxygen and nutrients can pass through to help repair any damage.
-Removes lactic acid
-Causes stretching of soft tissue to relieve tension and pressure and pressure.
-Breaks down scar tissue which, if not removed, can lead to mobility problems in muscles, tendons and ligaments.


What is the benefit of using a foam roller after exercise?

-They can release tension an tightness in a muscle, as well as between the muscles and the fascia.
-They can prevent injury
-Improve mobility.


When is cold therapy used?

It is used as a method of recovery, cold therapy is useful after intense exercise where it can target any minor aches and pains.


How does cold therapy work?

Cooling the surface of the skin using ice gives pain relief and causes vasoconstriction of the blood vessels, which decreases blood flow and reduces any bleeding or swelling. A decrease in swelling (oedema) enables the muscles to have more movement. Ice can also reduce muscle spasms by decreasing motor activity. The conduction velocity of sensory and motor nerves (speed of the nerve impulse) slows down in cold conditions. Metabolic rate also decreases.


What is oedema?

A build-up of fluid which causes swelling.


How do ice baths act as a form of recovery from exercise?

The cold water causes the blood vessels to tighten and drains the blood out of the legs. On leaving the bath, the legs fill up with new blood that invigorates the muscles with oxygen to help the cells function better. The blood that leaves the legs takes away with it the lactic acid that has built up during the activity.


How long are you normally in an ice bath?

5-10 mis


How is cryotherapy used as a recovery method from exercise?

Not only does it help with injury rehabilitation but can help with recovery from exercise. Many sportspeople use whole body cryotherapy to aid their recovery which targets the whole body and not just a particular muscle.


What is the benefit of cryotherapy compared to ice baths?

Cryotherapy is more pleasant and it is quicker (3 mins only)


What is the importance of sleep for improved recovery?

During sleep some of the rebuilding of the damage done to muscle cells caused by strenuous exercise occurs. Deep sleep is important for muscle recovery. The deepest sleep is during non-REM. Here, brain waves are at their slowest and blood flow is directed away from the brain and towards the muscle stores to restore energy. Most elite athletes need 8-9 hours each night and if sleep is to short the time to repair is cut short.


What is Non-REM?

Means there is no rapid eye movement. It consists of three stages of sleep which gets progressively deeper.


How is nutrition important for recovery?

During exercise, muscle glycogen stores decrease so they need to be replenished when exercise is finished. Research shows that replenishing glycogen stores during the first 20 minute window after exercise can then enhance performance the next day. In the 20 minutes immediately after exercise the body is most able to restore lost glycogen. The 3:1 to 4:1 ratio of carbs-to-protein helps the body re-synthesise muscles glycogen effectively than carbohydrates alone.