Chapter 6 - Sport And Society (Paper 2) Flashcards Preview

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What is a continuum?

A scale representing a gradual change.


What is the sporting development continuum?

Participation in various forms of physical activity at various stages of development. For example, grass roots 'foundation stage' in primary school PE or 'participation stage' involvement as an adult in physical recreation.


What is leisure?

Free time during which individuals can choose what to do.


What is participation level?

An emphasis on taking part recreationally with enjoyment as a key motivator to participate.


What are the key characteristics of physical recreation?

-It is fun, enjoyable, non-serious and informal in nature, so winning is not important; taking part is the main motive for participation.
-It is physically energetic, i.e. It involves effort being applied into physical activity.
-Participating is a matter of choice; it is voluntary and up to whether you take part or not in the free time you have available.
-It tends to involve adults at the 'participation level' of the sporting development of continuum.
-It is flexible in nature, so how long you take part for and the rules being followed can be adjusted by participants as they wish.
-It is self-officiated/self-regulated (i.e. any decisions during activities are made by the participants themselves).


What are the functions of physical recreation for an individual?

-Increases an individual's health and fitness
-helps in the development of physical skills
-Provides individuals with a challenge which, if they overcome it, will lead to a sense of achievement and increased levels of self-esteem and self-confidence.
-Can provide a chance to refresh oneself and it can act as a stress relief from work and help individuals to relax.
-Involvement in recreation can help people to socialise and meet up with friends.
-Provides sense of fun and enjoyment.
-Helps ensure participation in physical activity for as many years as possible, well into later life, as the emphasis is on taking part at your own level and pace, rather than trying to beat others.


What are the functions of physical recreation for a society?

-Increased health and fitness helps to reduce the strain on the NHS and lowers obesity rates.
-Social integration and improved community cohesion as individuals from different social communities join clubs and socially interact.
-Increase in employment and economic benefits when more people use facilities and buy equipment to participate.
-A more positive use of free time by individuals increases social control and decreases crime statistics in more socially inclusive society.
-Increased skill level at participation level, leads to more individuals potentially progressing through the performance/elite levels.


What are the key characteristics of sport?

-It is highly structured and has set rules/strict rules (e.g. Set time limits; set boundaries)
-It involves use of specialist equipment/set kit.
-Officials are present who are trained or appointed by national governing bodies to enforce the rules.
-Strategies and tactics are involved to try outwit opponents and win.
-Rewards are received such as medals/trophies, or intrinsic rewards such as gaining personal satisfaction from your performance.
-High skill levels are visible in sporting performance.
-High levels of commitment and/or strict training are involved to maintain and improve fitness and skill levels.
-It is serious and competitive.


What are the benefits of sport to an individual?

-Improved health and fitness and physical skill levels.
-Self-confidence often increases as a result of skill improvement and success, which can lead to a feel-good factor for participants where this is the case.
-Sport often provides increased social opportunities.
-Participation in sport can help develop positive sporting morals and attitudes such as fair play and sportsmanship which can influence a person's general behaviour and keep them out of trouble via positive use of free time.


What are the benefits of sport on society?

-Regular participation in energetic sporting activities helps to decrease the strain on the NHS and to reduce levels of obesity as health and fitness improve.
-Levels of crime can be reduced too, as individuals make more positive use of their free time they have available to them.
-Increased social integration and equality of opportunity may result via increased participation in sport together by different socio-economic and ethnic groups.
-Increased participation in sport has economic benefits as people pay to participate and spend money on new equipment and the latest fashionable kit on the market.
-Employment opportunities can be created as a result of sport participation.


What are the key characteristics of Physical Education?

-It is compulsory
-It involves formally taught lessons
-It has four Key stages as part of the National Curriculum from ages 5-16.
-It begins at primary school 'foundation level'
-Teachers are in charge and deliver lessons.
-Lessons are pre-planned; it is highly structured.
- It is in school time


What are the aims and functions of Physical Education?

-Development of health and fitness
-Positive attitudes which hopefully lead to healthy lifestyles being continued when PE is no longer compulsory.
-To provide increased participation in a variety of activities.
-To improve a range of practical skills and competencies.
-Development of personal and social skills (teamwork, communication, leadership, co-operation)
-Aims to develop sporting ethics such as morality, fair play and sportsmanship.
-Aims to improve problem solving, decision making and creativity.
-Aims to develop pupils' skill of self-analysis.


What is outdoor education?

Activities which take place in the natural environment and utilise nature/geographical resources such as mountains, rivers, lakes, etc.


What are the aims and functions of outdoor education?

-Helps children to engage with the natural environment as well as increase its conservation.
-Helps children to develop new physical and survival skills which can result in self-esteem.
-Is often physically challenging (climbing) which results in increased levels of health and fitness.
-Developing social skills through working with others (communication/co-operation/leadership skills)
-Teaches children how to deal with challenging situations, allowing the pupil to learn how to perceive risk.
-Helps children to learn to get excited (abseiling/climbing)
-Increased cognitive skills and improved decision making.


What is perceived risk?

A challenge that stimulates a sense of danger and adventure for beginners or inexperienced performers in a safe environment, with danger minimised via stringent safety measures (e.g wearing a safety harness when climbing).


What prevents schools being able to run outdoor education as part of the PE curriculum?

-A lack of time (e.g time in the curriculum)
-A lack of money (e.g high costs of specialist equipment)
-Lack of qualified or motivated staff
-Location of a school especially if it involves travelling a long distance to specialist facilities.
-Health and safety may act as a barrier when trying to offer such activities.


What is the triangular model for PE?

-Education (National curriculum PE)
-School sport (extra curriculum competitive opportunities)
-Recreation (extra curriculum, non-competitive participation opportunities)


What is the school sport partnership?

The creation of increased opportunities for school sport via junior/primary schools working together with secondary schools and further education providers.


What are school games?

Initiatives to increase participation in school sport from intra/inter-school level through to county and national levels.


What are the key characteristics of school sport?

-Extra time curricular activities
-Competitive (School sports partnerships and school games)
-Use of coaches


What are the aims and functions of school sport?

Physically, increased activity which can increase health and fitness and skill levels (can improve a child's self-esteem)
-Socially, new groups can be formed and new friendships developed via extra-curricular involvement in school sport.
-Improved cognitive skills can result in improved decision making capabilities, as well as an improvement in academic achievement if pupils become more motivated to attend and achieve at school.


What are the similarities of Physical recreation and Sport?

-They both involve physical activity, which helps increase health and fitness.
-They can be performed in a persons free time as voluntary activities.
-Intrinsic benefits are gained.


What are the differences between physical recreation and sport?

-Voluntary - More selective
-Emphasis on taking part - Emphasis on winning
-Limited/varied effort - Involves high level of commitment
-Rules can be modified - Set rules applied
-Self-officiated - External officials enforce rules
-Mainly intrinsic awards - Extrinsic rewards available for success
-Varied skill - Higher skill
-Basic equipment - High tech equipment


What are the similarities of physical recreation and physical education?

They both develop physical skills and are energetic, so have health and fitness benefits. They can both be enjoyable and fun to participate in so have intrinsic benefits.


What are the differences of physical recreation and physical education?

-Voluntary - Compulsory
-In a person's free time - In school time
-Participants control activity themselves; self-regulated - Teachers in charge
- Participation level - Foundation level at primary school level
-Simple - Highly structured


What are the differences between PE and school sport?

- In lesson time - in free time
-Compulsory - element of choice/voluntary involvement
-For all - For the chosen few
-Emphasis on taking part / emphasis on winning
-Teacher led - Coaches involved
-Wide variety of activities experienced - specialisms develop.


Define talent identification.

The multi-disciplinary screening of athletes in order to identify those with the potential for world class success.


Define elite

The best, highest level sports performers at 'excellence' level.


Define personal qualities

The attributes and personality characteristics of an individual person.


Define mentor

An individual who helps and guides another person's development.


What are the key personal factors and qualities necessary to develop as an elite performer?

- Commitment and self discipline
- Determination to succeed as well as being single-minded and mentally tough.
- Highly motivated with the desire to achieve
- Willing to self-sacrifice in order to succeed
- High pain tolerance
- High levels of self-confidence and self-efficacy
- Highly skilled physically and or naturally talented
- High level of physical fitness
- Good communicators and be willing to offer opinions and listen to advice from a team of people who work with them such as mentors
- Need to have a clear focus
- Patient


Define socio-economic status

And individual's position in the social structure, which depends on their job, level of income and the area they live in.


What are the social and cultural factors necessary to develop as an elite performer?

- High socio-economic status
- Evidence of equal opportunities and anti-discriminatory practice within a sport and setting of equity targets, for example policies to prevent potential barriers such as sexism.
- High quality, supportive educational provision
- Structured levels of competition to progress through
- High levels of media coverage and role models to aspire to
- Support of friends and family


Define sexism

Discrimination on the basis of sex/gender.


Define sports equity

Fairness in sport; equality of access for all; recognising inequalities in sport and taking steps to address them.


Defined National governing body (NGB)

And organisation which has responsibility for managing its own particular sport.


What is the role of UK sport?

UK sport has a single focus on developing high performance sport in the UK. The work is aimed at developing and implementing various strategies to increase sporting excellence in this country. The primary role is to strategically invest and distribute national lottery funding for elite performer development in order to maximise the performance of UK athletes in Olympic and Paralympic games.


How does UK sport reach their aim of achieving high performance sport in the UK?

-They provide funding to NGBs which enables them to operate a world-class program covering all funded summer and winter Olympic and Paralympic sports.
-They provide funding directly to athletes via an Athlete Personal Award which contributes to their living and sporting costs once they have reached elite level of performance.
-In terms of financial support at elite performer level, UK sport also provides funding for the National Institute of sport such as the English Institute of sport and British Olympic and Paralympic preparation plans for the Olympic and Paralympic games.


Give an example of a national Institute of sport.

The English Institute of sport (EIS)


What are the roles and purposes of the National Institute of sport?

- Sport science which includes exercise physiology. Work in this area is highly important in elite performance development as it helps evaluate training as it happens, allowing coaches and athletes to objectively monitor the impact of training on the body. Other sport science support provided at National Institute of sport includes performance nutrition, performance psychology and performance analysis.
- Medical - Sports medicine is particularly important for athletes at high-performance level. It is made available as quickly as possible at the National Institute of sport and include services such as physiotherapy and strength and conditioning coaches.
- Performance Lifestyle Support which is available to all the Athletes on the world class performance programme. It provides a personalised support service specifically designed to help each athlete create the unique environment necessary for their success. This support aims to minimise potential concerns, conflicts and distractions which could be detrimental to performance. It also helps with time management, budgeting, dealing with the media, sponsorship and career development.
- Organisations work in partnership.
- Top quality facilities and high-level coaches are provided
- Research and innovation


What is the UK talent team?

It is a collaboration between the English Institute of sport and UK sport, supporting the world-class programmes to identify and develop talented athletes via projects like the National athlete recruitment project. The UK Talent Teams work focuses on the hundreds of podium and podium potential athletes with the capability to positively impact future Olympic and Paralympic Games.


What are the different ways that NGBs try to provide equality of opportunity?

- Positive role model used to promote sport to target groups.
- Accessible facilities provided and developed for groups with a particular need
- Meet government policies on sport and recreation
- Policies put in place to target certain under represented groups
- Employment of sport specific sport development officers to promote the sport to under represented groups.
- resources invested in inner-city areas


Which organisation makes decisions on who in the sport should receive funding?

National governing bodies


What is a whole sports plan?

Business plan/documents submitted to Sport England outlining National Governing Body strategies to increase participation and enhance talent in the sport they are responsible for. For the four year period the Whole Sports Plan is in operation.


Give an example of a whole sport plan

British rowing is one example of an NGB that developed a 2013 to 2017 whole sport plan and received over £5 million for participation schemes such as Rowability and indoor rowing.


What are the reasons why talent identification programmes are used by organisations?

- It means all potential performers can be screened.
- Performers can be directed to the sports most suited for their talents.
- The development process can be accelerated as a result of the information gained.
- Efficient use can be made of available funding for talent ID schemes.
- The chances of producing medallists are improved.
- They provide a co-ordinated approach between organisations such as NGBs, EIS and UK support.


What are the possible disadvantages of talent ID programmes?

- They may miss late developers.
- They require high levels of funding.
- They require large numbers to be tested to be of use.
- There are no guarantees of success.
- Many sports are in competition for the same talent pool; high-profile sports may attract more performers or the best performers.


What makes a talent identification programme effective?

- High quality training facilities as well as testing facilities of a high standard.
- Analysis of performance via clear database of physiological information.
- Links between organisations involved in talent ID ensure a coordinated approach.
- Equal opportunities for all to apply.
- National development squads/well structured competitive programmes exist.
- Talent spotting for high-quality coaches.
- Funding being allocated to young and upcoming performers at different stages of their development.
- High-level provision of support services to support performers during their identification and progression.


What is a performance pathway team?

A combination of EIS and UK sport expertise used to identify and develop world-class talent.


What are the five main areas of support regarding the performance pathway?

1) Pathway Frontline Technical solutions: create 'talent profiles' which are capable of predicting future Olympic and Paralympic potential. It is also involved in possible positive transfer of sporting talent from one sport to another.
2) Pathway Education: This provides education opportunities for talent development coaches and managers covering a variety of topics linked to elite performer development.
3) Pathway Analytics: this gives sports the ability to provide meaningful measurements of the effectiveness of the performance pathway by using a range of diagnostic tools. It discusses topics such as junior to senior transition, as well as numbers who have continued along the pathway.
4) Performance Pathway Health Check (PHC): PHC is an important diagnostic tool. It provides a review of current systems and practices for supporting the development of potential medal winners in any given sport. It includes a review of the sports long-term vision and strategy for early development as well as consideration of the coaching and training environments a sport has in place to develop in the performance.
5) Pathway Strategy: this is designed to assist sports to develop and put in place a clear progressive pathway from podium foundation level to podium level in their sport.


What is the World Class Performance Programme (WCPP)?

A UK Sport programme which supports athlete helping them to reach podium level. It understands that it can take athletes many years to develop the necessary high level skills and competitive maturity required to be successful at the top level of international sport. This led to UK Sport adopting the funding philosophy which reflects potentially long journeys to the top. There are two clear levels which are; the podium and podium potential levels.


Describe the levels of the world class performance programme.

1) Podium - This level is designed to support athletes with realistic medal winning capabilities at the next Olympics and Paralympics (a maximum of four years away from the podium).
2) Podium Potential - This level is designed to support athletes whose performances suggest they have a realistic medal winning capabilities at subsequent Olympic Paralympic Games (a maximum of eight years away from the podium).
3) Talent - This level provides funding and support to identify and confirm athletes have the potential to progress to the world-class pathway.


What is the purpose of the Gold Event Series?

UK sport is the lead agency attempting to ensure the UK successfully bids to host on stage major sporting events. The flagship programme (called the Gold Event Series) is working hard to bring 100 targeted major international sporting events to the UK during the 10 years that is operating from 2013 to 2023. The Gold Event Series focuses mainly on attracting World Championships, European Championships and premium world circuit events to the UK.


What is UK sport main objectives to achieve as a result of staging major international sporting events in the UK?

- Supporting high-performance success
- Creating high-profile opportunities for people to engage in sport
- Using and demonstrating the legacy of London 2012 and Glasgow 2014
- Driving positive economic and social impacts for the UK.


Describe UK sport talent recruitment and confirmation programmes different phases.

- Campaigns start with a 'talent search' which can involve the general public or the sports community.
- Interested athletes are invited to submit an application form to UK sport for them to consider.
- Successful applicants are invited to phase 1 testing, hosted at venues around the home nation. Phase 1 involves performing a range of different fitness and skill tests linked to the sport.
- Results from these influence progression onto phase 2 and 3 which further assess an athletes suitability for a sport via medical screening, performance lifestyle workshops and psychological behavioural assessments.
- Following these assessment phases, selected athletes go on a 6 to 12 month confirmation phase when they are totally immersed into sports training environment, with exposure to carefully structured development to experience. Rates of progression attract to see if individuals are suitable for the sport and potential funding on the WCPP.


Define amateurism

Participation in sport for the love of it, receiving no financial gain; it is based on the concept of athleticism.


Define athleticism

Fanatical devotion to sport involving high levels of physical endeavour and moral integrity.


How is amateurism in sport still evident today?

- Fair play/sportsmanship is still view positively, encouraged and promoted in a number of ways. For example Fair Play Awards in football, shaking hands prior to and the end of sporting contest, and through the Olympics with the 'Olympic ideal' based on principles of amateurism.
- Sports such as rugby union which maintained their amateurism until late into the 20th century and still have codes of conduct based on principles, such as calling the referee Sir.


What does the Olympic Oath represent?

It is a promise made by one athlete as a representative for each of the participating competitors and one judge as a representative of the Olympic officials who commit to impartiality at the opening ceremony of each the Olympics. The oath states that competitors who take part will respect and abide by the rules without doping or taking drugs.


What is the name of the athlete who run the hundred metres for Canada in the Seoul Olympics of 1988 that broke the hundred meter world record and one the Gold medal but afterwards was tested positive for drugs?

Ben Johnson


Define sportsmanship

Conforming to the rules, spirit and etiquette of a sport.


Define stimulation

Trying to deceive and official by over-acting, for example, diving to win a free kick.


What are the ways in which sportsmanship can be encouraged?

- Use of NGB campaigns promoting sponsorship and FairPlay (FA respect).
- The giving of awards for FairPlay to encourage it The top level support, therefore providing positive role models for youngsters to follow (UEFA Fair Play Awards).
- Use of technology to help match officials reach the correct decision and allow for performers to be cited after matches for behaviour which goes against the rules.
- Introduction of NGB rules promoting FairPlay.
- Punish foul play and on sporting behaviour on the field of play and within the sporting event.
- Punish foul play and on sporting behaviour after the event.
- Use of positive role models to promote sportsmanship and fair play.
- Use of rigourous drug testing to ensure fairness in sporting contests and catch out drug cheats.


Define citing

Players can be cited for dangerous play, whether they are seen by the referee or not.


Define gamesmanship

Bending the rules and stretching them to the absolute limit without getting caught; using whatever dubious methods possible to achieve the desired result.


List examples of gamesmanship in elite level modern-day sport

- Time wasting when ahead to try and ensure victory.
- Verbally sledging an opponent to distract or upset them.
- psyching out an opponent at pre-match press conference.
- Taking an injury time out, toilet break or appealing a decision to the umpire even when it's not necessarily needed, to upset the concentration or rhythm to upset an opponent.
- Deliberate deception of an official to try and gain an advantage.


What is the win ethic? What is it also known as?

The win ethic links to the sporting ethic 'win at all costs' coming second is not viewed as an option and the outcome is all that matters. It is also known as the Lombardian ethic.


How is the win ethic still evident in the modern day elite sport?

- No drawn games
- Managers and coaches are fired if unsuccessful.
- High amounts of deviance e.g. violence, over aggression and doping.
- Media praise for winners, positive newspaper headlines
- Media negativity for losers.


Define positive deviance

Behaviour which is outside the norms of society but with no intent to harm or break the rules. It involves over-adherence to the norms or expectations of society.


Define negative deviance

Behaviour that goes against the norms and has a detrimental effect on individuals and society in general.


Give an example of positive deviance.

A performer may overtrain or try to compete in a sporting event despite being injured.


Give examples of negative deviance.

- Taking illegal performance in enhancing drugs.
- Deliberately fouling or harming an opponent through aggression or violent actions.
- Excepting a bribe to lose; match fixing.
- Driving to win a penalty or free kick.


Define violence in sport

Physical acts committed to harm others in sport such as American football, rugby, football and ice hockey.


List causes of player violence

- Win ethic and high rewards for success
- Importance of the event/results
- Nature of the sport
- National Governing Bodies are too lenient with their punishments
- Excitement/over-arousal
- Refereeing decisions leading to frustration
- Pre match hype
- Abuse or provocation from opponents or crowd


Define a televised match official (TMO)

Rugby league use a television match official who is a referee who can review plays by looking at TV footage as and when asked to by the on-field referee.


What are the strategies for preventing violence within sport in relation to the performer?

- Use of TMO/video replays to check decisions being made are correct.
- Training officials to develop the necessary skills to diffuse or calm down match situations which could potentially develop into aggressive behaviour.
- Punishing violence by performers (missed by officials) after the match by using video evidence.
- Use of post-match video evidence where individuals have been cited by referees as performing violent actions worthy of further investigation, e.g. The rugby league on report system allows the referee who sees what they believe to be an act of foul play to highlight the incident immediately to independent reviewers.
- Promoting performance with good disciplinary records as a positive role models in the sport.
- Imposing harsh punishments for violent actions on the field of play (long bans or heavy fines).
- Introducing education campaigns and or awards link to fair play.


Define hooliganism

Acts of vandalism and violence in public places committed especially by youths.


Define football hooliganism

Unruly, violent and destructive behaviour by over-zealous supporters of association football clubs.


What are the causes of violence in sport in relation to the spectator (causes of football hooliganism)?

- Emotional intensity and the ritual importance of the event (e.g. Derby)
- Too much alcohol and the 'highs' caused by drugtaking.
- Pre-match media hype stirring up tension between rival fans.
- Poor policing, stewarding and crowd control.
- Lack of effective deterrents and punishment to deter individuals from involving themselves in violence at football matches.
- Diminished responsibility by individuals in a large group; organised violence as part of a gang and peer pressure to get involved in violence.
- Reaction of working-class who perceive the middle-class to be taking over 'their game'.
- Poor officiating or frustration with match officials heightens tension between rival fans.
- Violence by players on the pitch is reflected in the crowd.
- A negative violent reaction may result in chants and taunts by rival fans.
- Frustration at one's own team losing can lead to some in the crowd to become violent.
- Violence is sometimes used by young males as display of the masculinity caused by an adrenaline rush when attending a match.


What are the possible solutions by sporting organisations and national governing bodies to try to combat football hooliganism?

- Ban on or control of alcohol sales.
- Increased use of police intelligence and improved liaison between forces across the country to gather information on known or potential hooligans.
- Imposing tougher deterrence like bans from matches, higher fines and prosecution/imprisonment for violent offenders, banning individuals from travelling abroad.
- Using CCTV around stadiums to identify and then eject or arrest individuals for crowd disorder.
- Removal of terraces, building of 'all-seater' stadiums, segregation of fans and the family zones to create a better, more civilised atmosphere at football matches, promoting football as family entertainment.
- Encouraging responsible media reporting prior to matches, decreasing the hype and potential tensions between rival fans.
- Playing games at kickoff time is imposed by the police (e.g. early kickoffs to try and avoid high levels of alcohol consumption).
- Passing specific laws preventing 'trespass' onto the pitch to try and stop pitch invasions and potential clashes between rival fans in the ground.


How did football hooliganism have a negative impact on football?

- Media images of fans openly involved in violence course the image of football to decline, which put some people off encouraging at it as a sport to participate in. A decline in the participation of football as a sport was accompanied by a decrease in the number actually going to matches and watching them.
- At club level some teams were banned from entering competitions due to the negative behaviour of their fans.
- Hooliganism has had negative implications for clubs as a result of the increasing cost of security and policing.
- Some of the measures introduced negatively impacted law-abiding fans who were further discouraged from attending matches due to restrictions such as bans on all supporters of a club travelling to and attending a match.


What are the social reasons for taking and using doping methods to enhance performance illegally?

- A win at all costs attitude which dominates modern day elite sport.
- The fame and fortune attached to success at elite level.
- The high levels of pressure to win from a variety of different sources such as coaches, family and media expectations.
- The lack of effective deterrents and firm believe that they will get away with it and not get caught.
- Poor role model to set a bad example that drugtaking in certain sports dispute in someway as being acceptable (e.g. cycling).


Define doping

In competitive sports, doping refers to the use of banned performance enhancing drugs by athletic competitors.


What are the main methods of enhancement (drugs)?

- Anabolic steroids
- Beta-blockers


What are anabolic steroids?

Artificially produced hormones e.g. THG


What are the reasons why anabolic steroids are used e.g. what are the benefits?

- They aid in the storage of protein and promote muscle growth and development of muscle tissue in the body, leading to increased strength and power.
- They also lead to less fat in the muscle, a lean body weight.
- They can improve the bodies capacity to train for longer at a higher intensity and decrease fatigue associated with training.


What type of athlete use anabolic steroids?

They are particularly beneficial to power athletes such as sprinters.


What are the side effects of taking anabolic steroids?

- Liver damage
- Heart and immune system problems
- Acne
- Behaviour changes such as aggression, paranoia and mood swings.


What are beta-blockers?

They help to calm down an individual and decrease anxiety by counteracting the adrenaline that interferes with performance by preventing it from binding to nerve receptors.


Why are beta-blockers used e.g. what are the benefits?

They can be used to improve accuracy in precision sports through steadying the nerves. They calm performance anxiety and aid performance by keeping the heart rate low and decreasing the tremble in the hands. They work by widening the arteries, allowing increased bloodflow and reducing involuntary muscle spasms.


What type of athletes might use beta-blockers?

Particularly relevant in high positions for such a country, snooker and golf.


What are the side-effects of beta-blockers?

Tiredness due to low blood pressure and slower heart rate which will affect aerobic capacity.


What is Erythropoietin (EPO)?

A hormone which is naturally produced by the kidneys to increased red blood cells. However can also be artificially produced to cause an increase in haemoglobin levels to improve performance in endurance athletes such as long distance cyclists.


Why is EPO used e.g. what are the benefits?

It stimulates red blood cell production which leads to an increase in the oxygen carrying capacity of the body. This can result in an increase in amount of work performed. It therefore increases endurance and delays the onset of fatigue. An athlete can keep going for longer and recover more quickly from training.


What type of athletes use EPO?

Tends to be used by endurance performers (e.g long-distance runners and cyclists) who need effective oxygen transport in order to succeed in their sport.


What are the side effects of taking EPO?

Can result in blood clotting, stroke and in rare cases death.


What are stimulants?

Drugs that induce a temporary improvement in mental and physical function.


What is Tetrahydrogestrinone?

A banned steroid used to increase power which was tweaked by chemists to make it undetectable by 'normal' tests.


What is the impact of drug taking on a sport?

- Drug taking and doping threaten the spirit and integrity. It is cheating and negatively damages the reputation of the sport and decreases interest in it.
- Drugtaking provides negative role models to young children as well as developing young athletes in this sport perceive that they cannot compete if they don't take drugs.


What are the negative impacts of drug taking on a performer?

- It provides negative role models which set a bad example to young people.
- It can also be very damaging to a performers health.
- There are a number of negative social consequences as athletes involved in the doping may lose their good reputation following a positive test.
- Future career prospects may be negatively impacted, with the loss of income and sponsorship deals resulting from doping infringements being widely reported in the media.
- In certain cases it can result in legal action against an individual who can be fined, banned from competing, stripped of medals and earnings and even end up in jail.
- Doping can lead to social isolation from peers, as well as having a negative effect on individuals emotional and psychological well-being.


What is BALCO?

The 'Bay Area Laboratory cooperative' which was behind one of the biggest scandals in drugs history as the source of THG, with several athletes implicated and subsequently banned from sport, including sprinters Dwain Chambers and Marion Jones.


What are the strategies for the elimination of performance enhancing drugs in sport?

- Drug-free culture created via education programs (e.g. 100% me by UK anti-doping)
- Organisations involved in drug detection/enforcement need to work together -> UKAD and WADA (World Anti-doping Agency).
- Punishments need to be harsher (lifetime bans, return of career earnings and money gained from sponsorship deals)
- Investment in drug detection technology, science and medicine.
- Name and shame negative role models.
- If guilty athletes should lose funding and sponsorship deals.
- Whereabouts system - aims to catch out drug takers by being to randomly test them and know of their whereabouts.
- Positive role models should be used to promote ethically fair, drug-free sport.


What are the issues trying to eradicate drugs from sport?

- Sometimes it is difficult to gain immediate access to athletes who may be training abroad.
- There is ongoing development of new drugs/masking agents which keep the performers who take drugs one step ahead of the testers.
- The fact that sometimes drugs can be taken accidentally means some individuals claim their innocence despite the fact that they are ultimately responsible for what they put on their body.
- Different countries and sports have different regulations and testing procedures so it's very difficult to get a unified approach to eliminating drug usage in sport.


What is the whereabouts system?

A system designed to support out of competition testing which requires athletes to supply the details of their whereabouts so that they can be located at any time and anywhere for testing, without advance notice.


What is WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency)?

The foundation created in 1999 through a collective initiative led by the IOC to promote, coordinate and manage the fight against drugs in sport.


If countries and sport had a unified approach to eliminating drug usage, how would it be effective?

Such a unified approach would have a number of positives as it would help to ensure equality between sports for competitors and clarify for all a standard list of banned substances, testing produce features and punishments. It would also enable the high costs of testing to be shared between all sports and countries involved and enable random, out of competition testing to occur via improved access to performers who would not be up to pick and choose sports based on drug testing procedures and practices.


What are the arguments for drug taking?

- The battle against drugs is expensive and time-consuming.
- Drugs are quite easy to access and some would argue that they are very difficult to eliminate and the money spent on testing could be better spent on things like participation initiatives and or investment into elite sport.
- Detection is not always effective; drug tests are always one step behind as new drugs become a fileable unmasking agents are developed.
- Sometimes it's difficult to define what is a drug; compared to a legal supplement; other technological aids are not regulated such as oxygen tents and nutritional supplements.
- Drugs are sometimes taken accidentally.
- Sacrifices made by a performer are a personal choice.
- If everyone takes drugs, it levels the playing field and increases performance standards physiologically and psychologically.
- If drugtaking is properly monitored, health risks may be lessened.
- Athletes do not ask to be role models and individuals have a right to choose that as it is their body; drugs can be particularly helpful to athletes to recover more quickly from gruelling training.


What are the arguments against drug taking?

- There can be health risks and dangerous side-effects.
- Drug taking creates negative role models who set up or example to be young who might be tempted to use them.
- Drug use gives a negative image of certain sports.
- Pressure to take drugs increases from coaches and peers who take drugs.
- Success in sport should be about hard work and natural talent and drug use is outside this concept.
- Drugs given on fair advantage and are immoral, and ethical and against the fair play ethic.
- Taking drugs is cheating.
- Only richer countries can afford them.
- There are a variety of different negative consequences if caught doping, such as the loss of sponsorship, loss of medals and loss of lottery funding.
- Drug taking is illegal.


Define sports law

The laws, regulations and judicial decisions that govern sports and athlete who perform in them.


Define damages

Individual seeking legal redress and compensation for loss of earnings must prove that they have suffered an actual injury as a result of the deliberate harmful, reckless actions of an opponent.


What is the Bosman ruling?

A ruling by the European Court of Justice which gave a professional football player the right to a free transfer at the end of their contract.


Define restraint of trade

Action that interferes with free competition in a market. In sport this may involve a clause in a contract which restricts the person's right to carry out their profession.


What are some reasons why sports performers might need assistance from the law during their sporting careers? (Uses of sports legislation in relation to the performer)

- Spectators attacking players
- Opponents being too violent -> illegal act outside the rules of the sport that cause injury.
- Contractual issues with sponsors
- Contractual issues with employers -> performers are employees and deserve the same employment rights as other workers (e.g. Bosman ruling)
- Equality of opportunities issues
- Refereeing negligence


Define negligence

Conduct that falls below a 'reasonable personal standard' and leads to a breach of the duty of care, which results in foreseeable harm to another.


What is duty of care?

A legal obligation imposed on someone if they are responsible for a group of people.


What are the uses of sports legislation in relation to officials?

Negligence is when someone (e.g. an official) fails to take reasonable care for another person to avoid any dangers that could cause them harm. Officials have a duty of care towards participants to make sure that all dangers around them are eliminated so they can participate in the contest in the safe environment. When they don't do everything possible to keep participants safe, they may be seen as negligent. Negligence cases are being brought against officials at both professional and amateur levels of sport.


What are the uses of sports legislation in relation to coaches?

In terms of sports coaches, the duty of care means have a legal obligation to eliminate all the potential dangers and risks so that players can participate in a safe environment to ensure nobody gets hurt unnecessarily. Coaches can be sued for negligence if children or individuals taking part get injured as a result of the coaches actions.


What are the legal responsibilities of a coach?

- Health and safety -> the coach should have access to first aid facilities and have the means to contact emergency services should this be required. The coach could be deemed to be liable if evidence shows that normal standards and practices were not followed.
- Protection from abuse -> coaches have a responsibility to protect children from all forms of abuse, including emotional abuse and physical abuse. All organisations should have a policy statement and guidelines regarding child abuse which a coach should adhere to.
- Supplements -> coaches have a legal and ethical responsibility to educate their athletes about drug use and abuse and provide general and appropriate advice on legal nutrition and supplements which can be used to enhance performance.
- Duty of care -> it is widely accepted that in relation to children and young people, sports organisations and individuals who work for them have a duty of care. When coaching young children, ensuring the participants safety and welfare can be due to a legal duty of care or moral duty of care. Legally, liability issues would only arise if an incident occurs and it can be demonstrated that the risk was foreseeable, but no action was taken to remedy it.


What are the way coaches can demonstrate a reasonable standard of care?

- Keeping up-to-date contact details, medical details, register of attendance.
- Maintaining appropriate supervision ratios.
- Ensuring that first aid provision is available at the club.
- Ensuring that individuals regularly involved in coaching children have a current DBS clearance.
- Ensuring they have undertaken an appropriate risk assessment for the activities being coached.


What does it mean by duty of care applied to coaches?

This requires coaches to take such measures as are reasonable in the circumstances to ensure that individuals will be safe to participate in an activity.


What does in loco parentis mean?

A Latin phrase which means 'in the place of a parent'. It is the authority parents assigned to another responsible adult who will be taking care of the child.


Give an example half of how exporting official might be deemed to be negligent in the execution of the duties

Allowing a match to be played on a dangerous surface that hasn't been checked prior to the match starting.


What are the uses of sports legislation in relation to spectators?

A variety of different acts and pieces of legislation have been introduced since the mid 20th century to try and improve the spectator safety at sporting events, as well as trying to control the behaviour of fans so they act within the law.


What are the different measures that have been introduced to try and ensure safety for spectators and performers and overcome hooliganism at sports events including football matches?

- Removal of perimeter fences and terraces; all seater stadiums to replace the terraces.
- Control of alcohol sales on the way to grands as well as in the grounds.
- Specified kick-off times imposed by police.
- Increased security and police presence, intelligence gathering, improved police liaison between forces across the country and indeed the world.
- Tougher deterrents, e.g. banning orders, fines, imprisonment for offenders.
- Trespassing onto the field of play is illegal.
- Use of CCTV and increased security that matches for increased policing and stewarding.


Define media

An organised means of communication by which large numbers of people can be reached quickly.


What are the advantages to elite sport as a result of the golden triangle?

- Increased income to the sport for allowing events to be televised. This can be spent at all levels of the sport funding participation initiatives at grassroots level as well as providing finance to support elite athletes at the top of the profession.
- Increased promotion of the sport to gain more fans and increase its popularity.
- Increased sponsorship and income from business sources to pay for advertising at grounds and sporting events.
- Sports are organised and funded, which in turn improves the way they are run.
- Improved facilities benefit performers and spectators alike.


Discuss the relationship between sport, sponsorship and media.

- The media uses sport to gain viewers/readers.
- The media is itself used by businesses/sponsors for advertising purposes, promoting the company name and the products it sells.
- Businesses/sponsors pay the media for advertising time and space on TV, online, on the radio and in the newspaper.
- Businesses/sponsors pay large amounts of money to sports/sport performers to act for them as an advertising medium to sell more of their goods.
- Sports are aware that they need to appear in the media to attract sponsorship, increased their profile and appeal to a wide audience.
- Sports need to be more professionally managed as a result of the increasingly commercialised nature of sport.


What are the possible disadvantages of the media and sponsorship to elite sport?

- Possibility of sensationalist media reporting which focus too much on negative aspects of a sport.
- The media and sponsors can dictate kick-off times and scheduling of sports events, to the detriment of performers and fans.
- The media and sponsors can change the nature of the sporting activity (e.g. introducing more for longer breaks in play to allow for advertising).
- The media and sponsors only televise already popular, high-profile sports.
- Sponsors and the media can be too demanding on elite performers and coaches (e.g. in relation to personal appearances and giving interviews).
- Sponsorship deals can increase the pressure to win or maintain lucrative contracts with companies willing to pay for an association with successful sports and sports performers.


What is OFCOM?

The communications regulator in the UK (e.g. they regulate the television sector).


Define ring-fenced

A number of sporting events at national and international level must be available for viewing on terrestrial or free to access TV rather than on satellite and subscription channels.


What are the reasons for the continued ring fencing of certain major sporting events?

- To access the widest number and range of viewers.
- To avoid restricting coverage to subscription channels available only to those who can afford them.
- To increase geographical access to all viewers in all parts of the country to major sporting events.
- To enable viewing of certain events which are seen as part of our sporting heritage and culture.
- To enable access to sporting events which should be freely available for all to view (e.g. Olympic games, football World Cup).


What are the characteristics of sports which are particularly attractive to the media?

- They have high levels of skill for viewers to watch and admire which comes through a competitive, relatively well-matched competition.
- They are visually appealing and demonstrate physical challenge, lots of action packed excitement and aggression.
- They are easily understood with relatively simple rule structures.
- The sport or sporting event is easy to televise and has a relatively short timescale which fits into viewers' busy schedules.
- They are seen as nationally relevant with easily identifiable personalities and role models.


What are the advantages of media coverage for sport?

- Increase the profile of the sport and individual performers within the sport.
- Increased participation levels within the sport as a result of TV coverage which encourages others to take it up (e.g. cycling as a result of the Tour de France or football as a result the World Cup).
- More variations of the sport are developed to make it more media friendly, leading to more matches/fixtures for fans to watch (e.g. Twenty20 cricket).
- It generates higher levels of income and makes the sport more appealing to sponsors. It increases commercial opportunities, which further increases the financial gain of the sport or sports performers.
- Increased standards in performance as well as behaviour as a result of an increased media focus.
- Rulechanges lead to a speeding up of action/more excitement/entertainment in the sport.


What are the disadvantages of media coverage for sport?

- National governing bodies/sports performers lose control to the TV/sponsors. The traditional nature of sport is lost; E.g. rule structures/timings of a sport are adapted to suit the demands of TV or sponsors.
- Media control the location of events, as well as kick-off times and in some cases playing seasons.
- There is sometimes too much sport on TV which can lead to possible boredom of spectators and/or lower attendance at events which are on TV.
- There are inequalities of coverage - more popular sports such as football gain at the expense of minority sport such as squash.
- Certain prestigious events are now available only on satellite TV which requires a subscription payment (e.g. through sky and BT sport).
- Demands of media and sponsors negatively impact on high-level performers.
- The media can sometimes over-sensationalise certain negative events in sport.
- A win at all costs attitude develops due to high rewards on offer which leads to negative, deviant acts and players becoming poor role models.
- More breaks in play (e.g. for adverts) can disrupt the spectator experience.


Define merchandising

The practice in which the brand or image from one product is used to sell another (e.g. professional sports performers/teams promote various products including mobile phones, betting companies).


Define commercialisation

The treating of sport as a commodity, involving the buying and selling of assets, with the market as the driving force behind sport.


Define sponsorship

When a company pays for their products to be publicly displayed or advertised, usually as an attempt to increase the sales of their goods.


What are the characteristics of sport which make it attractive as a commercial enterprise?

- It has extensive media coverage
- It gains large audiences, viewing figures and high levels of ticket sales.
- It links to professional/high profile sport.
- Players are contracted to perform with or endorse products.
- They offer extensive advertising, merchandising or sponsorship deals.
- Winning is important as it creates a link with success.
-The sport is media friendly/entertaining.


How have companies investing in televised sport benefitted?

- Increased sales and promotion of a product
- Increased brand awareness
- Improved company image linked to the healthy image of sport
- Opportunities to entertain clients via corporate hospitality
- Decreasing the amount of tax a company pays as sponsorship is tax deductible.


Define high socio-economic demographic relating to sport

A sport played or watched by individuals with high levels of disposable income.


What are the positive effects of sponsorship and commercial deals for elite sports performers?

- Increased wages, prize money and extrinsic rewards
- Increased availability of professional contracts where performers are able to devote themselves full time to sport, training harder and longer to improve performance.
- Performers are increasingly in the public eye and increasingly well known so they need to maintain discipline and behave appropriately to protect a positive image.
-Increased funding to pay for access to high quality training support and specialist equipment.


What are the negative effects of sponsorship and commercial deals for elite sports performers?

- Increased pressure to win and a win at all costs attitude to maintain high level prize money, extrinsic rewards, wages, sponsorship deals.
- An increase in 'deviant' behaviour due to increased pressure to win (e.g. performing when injured or over-training; taking illegal drugs)
- Performers are treated as commodities, bought and sold for economic reasons; sponsors become too demanding (e.g. via the requirement to make personal appearances at sponsorship events when they should be training).
- Inequality of funding means performers in 'minority sports', miss out on funding and full-time professional opportunities.


What are the reasons why an elite performer should consider the nature of the sponsorship deal before accepting it?

- Social duty to others
- Personal appearances demanded too much
- Opposed nature of the product to the reputation of the performer (e.g. sportswear companies who are accused of the unethical manufacture of their goods)
- Negative impact on future sponsorship
- Support from sponsors is image dependent
- Opposed to the true nature of the sport
- Role models for others


What are the positive effects of commercialisation and sponsorship on sport?

- Increased funding to a sport to provide improved facilities, equipment, coaching and Talent ID programmes to develop performers in that sport.
- Increased funding to provide technology at events to aid decision making from officials
- Increased number of positive role models in a sport to inspire others to take part and increase participation rates in that sport.
- Increased spectator interest and involvement.
- Increased number of events and competitions to help generate interest and promote a sport.


What are the negative effects of commercialisation and sponsorship on sport?

- Sports might become over-reliant on the funding and income from commercial sources and experience problems if it is withdrawn.
- Money goes to already popular sports -> inequalities in funding.
- The sport sometimes loses control (e.g. ticket allocations at major sporting events go to corporate organisations rather than to 'true fans').
- Traditionalists might be against new competitions, rule changes or changes in a sports format to suit the demands of sponsors for more excitement and more breaks for adverts.
- The location of events may be influenced by commercial considerations.


What are the positive impacts of increased media coverage and media coverage of elite sport for coaches and managers?

- Coaches and managers gain a higher profile as a result of high levels of media coverage, which increases public awareness of their role.
- Increased salaries for coaches and managers
- The increased funding received from sponsors and the scale of media rights can be invested by coaches and managers into improving playing squads, as well as support systems (e.g. training grounds and medical provision.
- Media coverage of sport also enables coaches to analyse their opponents more, as well as learn from other high level coaches.


What are the negative impacts of increased media coverage and media coverage of elite sport for coaches and managers?

- Coaches and managers are under intense pressure to be successful and win matches.
- High level of public expectation to produce positive results and if not, managers can expect the sack relatively quickly.
- When the pressure is on, the expectation to deal with the media and answer their questions can be particularly difficult for managers.
- Inequalities in sponsorship and funding mean that coaches and managers in minority sports find it harder to attract the best, high level performers to their clubs/sports, which means they are financially disadvantaged in relation to their higher profile colleagues.


What are the positive impacts of increased media coverage and commercialisation of elite sport for officials?

- Increased profile of officials which increases public awareness of their important role ensuring 'fairness in sport'.
- An increase in salary and possibility of full-time job opportunities as part of an elite group of match officials.
- Increased funding to invest in support systems and training to improve standards of officiating; increased ability to learn from other officials.
- Increased funding to invest in technology to aid officials in their decision making.


What are the negative impacts of increased media coverage and commercialisation of elite sport for officials?

- Increased pressure on officials to get decisions right.
- Increased expectation to respond to media enquiries and give interviews explaining their decisions.
- Risk of possible demotion or job loss if a 'faulty decision' is highlighted in the media.
- Technology to aid officials in their decision making is not always available to them at lower levels of sport.
- Officials may become too dependent on media technology when it is available to them.


What are the positive impacts of increased media coverage and commercialisation of elite sport for the spectator/audience?

- Increased performance standards; players are of higher standard and provide a high level of excitement and entertainment.
- Improved quality of facilities; larger, higher quality stadiums result from increased investment.
- Improved viewing experience via innovations such as changes in ball colour, creation of merchandise to create team loyalty via the purchase and subsequent wearing of a team's kit.
- Increased access to watch sport; more opportunities to watch events live as more competitions, more events and more matches are taking place.
- More variations of a sport format develop which provide alternative viewing experiences.
- More funding is available to provide entertainment (e.g. cheer leaders) at sports events.
- Rule changes introduced provide extra interest and extra excitement for the spectator, e.g. Twenty20 cricket
- Increased funding for improved technology at a ground (e.g. video screens) and at home, e.g. interactive technology, HD coverage of sport and referee links.
- Increased excitement in the audience while awaiting the decisions of off-field officials, e.g. Hawkeye in tennis.
- Increased awareness of and knowledge of sport; creation of role models for fans to idolise.
- Increased elimination of negative aspects of sport (e.g. hooliganism)


What are the negative impacts of increased media coverage and commercialisation of elite sport for the spectator/audience?

- Increased costs to watch sport, e.g. on pay-per-view satellite channels.
- Loss of the traditional nature of the sport.
- Increased number of breaks in play to accommodate adverts and decisions of officials.
- Fewer tickets available for the fans; more are allocated to sponsors and corporate hospitality.
- Changes in kick-off times to maximise viewing figures, which is not always in the best interests of the long-distance travelling fans who wish to watch it live.
- Minority sports receive less coverage; major sports dominate the TV schedules and might be 'over-exposed'.
-Links to 'team or player merchandise' are sometimes viewed negatively due to their high cost and regularity of change.