Chapter 2 - Information Processing (Paper 1) Flashcards Preview

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What is information processing?

The methods by which data from the environment are collected and utilised.


What is the input stage?

Information picked up by the senses.


What is the display?

The sporting environment.


What are the three parts of information processing in order?

Input -> Decision making -> Output


List parts of the display.

Examples include:
-Conditions of the pitch
-team mates


What are receptor systems?

The senses that pick up information from the display.


List the senses used in sport.

-Sight (or vision)
-Auditory sense (hearing)


What is the first sense used in sport?



What is the second sense used in sport?

Auditory sense


The two senses, hearing and sight, are described as being ... senses. Why?

External senses as information is collected from the environment.


What are internal senses known as?



What are proprioceptors?

The senses that provide internal information from within the body.


What are the three proprioceptors/internal senses?



What is kinesthesis?

The inner sense that gives information about body position and muscular tension.


What is the sense balance also known as?



What happens during the decision making stage? What is important in making a decision?

At this point the performer must make a decision based on all the information collected by senses. In order to make the decision, the process of selective attention and the use of the memory systems are really important.


What is selective attention?

Filtering relevant information from irrelevant information.


What is the difficult part of decision making?

The difficulty in this part of the process lies in the fact that the performer can receive a host of information from the five senses and yet needs to make their decision based only on the important aspects of that information.


How can selective attention be developed?

-Sports performers can enhance the process of selective attention by learning to focus and concentrate on important information, getting used to the idea of a stimulus. If this stimulus is made more intense, loud or bright when the performer is training, it will help to develop the art of concentration.
-Selective attention could also be developed through improved motivation. Coach and player could enhance motivation by using rewards such as positive comments, and once motivation is increased, the performer becomes more alert to the important information.
-Mental practice can help the process of selective attention when the performer runs through the upcoming task in the mind before the movement starts.


What is stimuli?

The important and relevant items of information from the display such as the flight of the ball.


What are the benefits of selective attention?

-Improves reaction time significantly
-Focusing on the relevant information improves the chances of making a correct decision.
-By ignoring irrelevant information, a player may be able to concentrate on more detailed aspects of the task.
-Working memory has a limited capacity and too much information could affect the memory function therefore selective attention helps the decision making process.


What is perception?

The process of coding and interpreting sensory information.


What are translatory mechanisms?

Adapting and comparing coded information to memory so that decisions can be made.


What is a effector mechanism?

The network of nerves that sends coded impulses to the muscles.


What are the three aspects of the perceptual stage of information processing?

Detection, comparison and recognition (DCR)


What is the detection stage of information processing?

The performer has picked up the relevant information and identified that information as important, using the senses and the process of selective attention.


What is the comparison stage of information processing?

The comparison aspect of information processing involves trying to match the information identified as important to information already in the memory of the performer.


What is the recognition stage of information processing?

Recognition means that the performer has used information from the memory to identify an appropriate response which can be put to action.


Why is the translatory mechanism important and helpful?

The translatory mechanism helps to convert information so that decisions can be made. If you translate a language you would convert an unfamiliar language into one that you know. The same applies here, but in sporting terms the information from the senses, once it has been filtered, is then adapted into an image that can be sent to the memory for comparison.


What does the translatory mechanism use?

The translatory mechanism uses past experiences so that information received can be linked with these past experiences and sent to the memory system. The translatory mechanism uses coded information from the perceptual process to pick out an appropriate motor programme.


How are actions stored in the memory?

They are stored in the form of motor programmes.


How do the muscles receive the information to cause an output?

The muscles will receive the information in the form of coded impulses and once this impulse is received, then the muscles will contract and the response can begin.


What is feedback?

It is the information used during or after the response to aid movement correction.


What is the order of the features of the information-processing models?

-Receptor system
-Perceptual mechanism
-Translatory mechanism
-Effector mechanism
-Muscular system
-Output data
-Feedback data


During information processing what is the importance of the environment?

It contains the information needed to perform.


What is the working memory?

It performs a number of functions and consists of a control centre called the central executive.


What is the central executive?

The control centre of the working memory model, it uses three other 'systems' to control all the information moving in and out of the memory system.


What is the phonological loop?

Deals with auditory information from the senses and helps produce the memory trace.


What is the visuospatial sketchpad?

Used to temporarily store visual and spatial information.


What is the episode buffer?

Co-ordinates the sight, hearing and movement information from the working memory into sequences to be sent to the long-term memory.


What are the sub-systems of the central executive?

-Phonological loop
-Visuospatial sketchpad
-Episodic buffer


What are the parts of the phonological loop?

It has a phonological store and an articulatory system that help it to produce a memory trace.


How can the memory trace from the phonological loop lead to a motor programme?

This memory trace made by the phonological store and the articulatory system, is an initial mental idea of the skill, which can be sent to the long-term memory where it can trigger a motor programme, or images that contain components of a skill, so that this motor programme can then be used to produce movement.


What aspects does the visuospatial sketchpad concern?

Visual (sight) and spatial (where) information as well as helping with the feel of the movement.


The visuospatial sketchpad further divides into two section. What are these?

- The visual cache - which holds information about form and colour
- Inner scribe - which deals with spatial and movement information.


What does the episodic buffer do?

It is responsible for co-ordinating the works of the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad into sequences. It produces integrated sequences of sight, sound and movements which can be sent to the long-term memory. These sequences produce patterns of skilled actions that are put in order and sent to the long term memory. These sequences are the starting point for the initiation of motor programmes which can be used to produce movement.


What are the four parts of the working memory?

-Central executive
-Phonological loop
-Visuospatial sketchpad
-Episodic buffer


What is the first job of the working memory?

To pick up the relevant information from the sporting environment and once this information is received, the memory goes to work.


What is the long term memory (LTM)?

Receives information from the working memory and has an unlimited capacity for the storage of motor programmes.


How does the working memory and the long term memory work together?

Once the relevant information has been collected from the sporting environment, the working memory produces a memory trace, a mental snapshot of the skill so that it can be compared to the information already contained in the storage area of the LTM. The LTM can send information back to the working memory for use in the current sporting situation.


The working memory and long term memory work together, what is this described as being?

A two-way process.


What are the characteristics and actions of the working memory?

-The working memory initiates the action by sending the memory trace.
-However, the working memory has a limited capacity. It can only deal with around seven items of information at any one time and too much information, or information overload, could mean the important information is lost or disregarded by the performer. It is therefore useful that selective attention limits the amount sent to the working memory.
-The working memory has a limited time scale - it lasts for around 30 seconds until the information within it is either lost or used.


What are the characteristics and actions of the long-term memory?

-The long-term memory has a large capacity and it can store information for a lifetime if needed.
-Important information can be stored in the long-term memory in the form of motor programmes, a more permanent trace of a skill consisting of all the components that make up that skill.


Describe and explain the strategies that could be used by the player or the coach to ensure items are stored in the LTM?

-Rewards: Extrinsic and intrinsic rewards help to motivate the performer to want to remember correct actions.
-Association of actions you wish to learn with appropriate actions or emotions already stored in the memory.
-Mental practice: When the parts or sub-routines of a skill are imagined over and over again in the mind without physical movement, this can help store information in the memory.
- Breaking down the task (chunking) into parts, especially when the skill is complicated, can help to prevent information overload. Therefore the performer can learn one aspect of the task before going on to learn the next part of the skill.
-Information can also be stored in the long-term memory by getting the performer to focus and concentrate on the task in hand. If you think about it, focusing on the task and ignoring distractions helps the process of selective attention which in turn will ensure that correct information goes to short-term and then long-term memory.
-The obvious and perhaps most important method of storing information in the long-term memory is by repetition of an action. Repeated practice to the stimulus will ensure that skills are coded and stored as motor programmes in the LTM, and those motor programmes will sit in the LTM until they are needed.
-The use of the method called chaining, when items of information are recalled as a sequence, so that one movement links to the next, helps to store information and is particularly useful in recalling serial skills.


What is association?

Linking the stored actions of a skill to a stored emotion or other action.


What is mental practice?

Going over the action in the mind without physical movement.


What is chunking?

Breaking the skilled action into parts or sub-routines.


What is the Schema theory by Schmidt?

Schema theory suggests that rather than use a structured set of movements to develop skills, the core principles can be taken from an existing motor programme and then adapted, using some information from the environment and by using feedback from the senses.


When a Schema is used to adapt an existing motor programme, what are the four essential processes that must be used to make sure the Schema is effective? (Parameters of Schema)

1) Initial conditions refers to information from the sporting environment that must be recognised before the Schema can be used. This information may concern the position on the court, the placing on the limbs just prior to the action and the location. Of the performer with regard to other players.This first part of the Schema can be summed up as the 'Where am I?'
2)Response specifications is where the information from the environment is used to assess the available options open to the performer. The response can be summed up as 'What do I need to do?'
3) The Sensory consequences concern the use of the senses to help guide the movement. Information from the senses is used to control and apply the movement to the situation.
4) The response outcome is where the Schema and the motor programme can be updated by getting knowledge of the result of the action.


What are the initial conditions?

Information from the environment.


What are the response specifications?

Information about what to do.


When using the initial conditions and response specifications what information is used?

When using the first two parts of the Schema, information is used from the motor programme in the memory system.


What is the recall Schema?

Initiates movement, comes before action.


Why are the first two parts of the Schema known as the recall Schema?

The initial conditions and response specifications make up the recall Schema because the information used is recalled from the memory.


What is the recognition Schema?

Controls movement, happens during the action.


What are the Sensory consequences?

Information about the feel of the movement.


What is the response outcome?

Feedback about the result.


Why do the Sensory consequences and the response outcome make up the recognition Schema?

The sensory consequences and the response outcome make up the recognition Schema because the information uses controls and adapts the action. The information required to perform the skill is recognised.


What are the two parts of Schema?

The recall and recognition


How can a coach make sure the Schema is used successfully?

- Varied practice can be used in order to continually adapt the performers approach.
- The coach should use feedback to the player to ensure that actions and motor programmes can be adjusted.
- The coach should point out to the player when a Schema can be used as parts of the skill that can be transferred should be highlighted.
- The coach could offer reinforcement in the form of praise to the player to encourage further use of the Schema in other situations.


What is varied practice?

Changing the type and content of the practice session.


What is reaction time?

The time taken from the onset of a stimulus to the onset of a response.


Does reaction time involve movement?

Reaction time involves no movement only information processing.


What is the movement time?

The time taken to complete the task.


What is the response time?

The time taken from the onset of a stimulus to the completion of a task. Response time = Reaction time + Movement time.


What does the movement time follow? Why?

It follows the reaction time as the information has to be processed before movement can occur.


What is a simple reaction time?

A simple reaction time is when there is one specific response to one stimulus. There is only one option to one stimulus.


Give an example of a simple reaction time.

An example would be the swimmer or the athlete at the start of a race responding to the starter's gun.


What is a choice reaction time?

When there is more than one stimulus to chose from and they may be more than one response to make.


Give an example of a choice reaction time.

A key player with decisions in team games such as a midfielder in hockey has to chose the correct stimulus from various indicators on the pitch and may also chose the correct response from various options.


Which reaction time is quicker simple or choice? Why?

Simple produces a fast reaction and response since the athlete has only one thing to think about whereas choosing from numerous stimuli is a choice reaction time and the reaction time is much slower.


What is hick's law?

Reaction time increases as the number of choices increases.


Understanding hick's law, how is this used to a players advantage?

In multiple situations in a variety of sports the variety of shots which can be played increases the response preparation time and delays the actions of an opponent.


Does hick's law follow a straightforward linear relationship?

No, because as players become more developed or during later stages of a game when they are more familiar with the opponent the response becomes slightly quicker which on a graph shows a curved shape.


What are the three concepts that explain how timing and choice can affect response time.

-The single-channel hypothesis
-The psychological refractory period


What is the single-channel hypothesis?

This hypothesis states that only one stimulus can be processed at a time. Therefore a second stimuli must wait until the first has been processed before it can be processed. The delay in processing a second stimulus increases response time and goes some way into explaining Hick's law: the more choices, the slower the response.


What is the psychological refractory period?

A delay when a second stimulus is presented before the first has been processed.


What do you call the delay that occurs when a second stimulus arrives before the first has been dealt with?

Psychological refractory period (PRP)


How can athletes use the psychological refractory period to their advantage?

By deceiving your opponent to force a delay in their response. E.g. Performing a fake/dummy pass in a team game.


What is anticipation?

Pre-judging a stimulus.


How can athletes anticipate their opponents?

The performer tries to work out what is going to happen before it happens which they can do through using the environment in the form of signals from the opponent or 'cues', which may include body language and positioning of the opponent.


What is temporal anticipation?

When it is going to happen.


What is spatial anticipation?

Where and what is going to happen.


What are the two essential parts of anticipation? Why?

Temporal and spatial anticipation. These must be considered before the stimuli can be judged.


What does correct anticipation improve? Why?

Response time as the information processing process is speeded up, the information has been processed before the action has happened, so the movement aspect of the response can happen immediately.


What happens if anticipation is incorrectly judged?

If the anticipation is incorrectly judged and the stimulus that is presented is not the one expected, then there will be a delay while the actual and second stimulus are processed.


Describe and explain strategies which players and coaches can use to improve response time.

- Mental practice works as by going over the task in the mind prior to the action, the response preparation process is improved and the action cane be predicted and so made quicker. Mental practice works well with closed skills and serial skills when the environment is predictable.
- Performers can train to specific stimulus expected in a game.
- Performer could learn to focus and concentrate during the game so that the stimulus is picked up early. To help with concentration the coach could make the stimuli intense.
- Improving fitness improves reaction time; interval training and plyometrics might improve speed and power during the movement part of the response.
- If appropriate, the player might also use anticipation to predict the stimulus.