Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Sports Psychology (Paper 2) Deck (107):
Define achievement motivation.
The tendency to approach or avoid competitive situations. Summed up as the drive to succeed minus the fear of failure.
The need to achieve; approach behaviour. The player welcomes competition.
The need to avoid failure; avoidance behaviour. The player avoids risks.
What is attributing success internally?
Giving a reason for success that is due to the responsibility of the player.
Describe the characteristics of a NACH performer.
1) Welcome competition
2) Take risks
3) Very confident and have belief in their ability
4) Task persistent
5) Attribute success internally
6) Welcome feedback and evaluation
7) they based their actions on trying to seek pride and satisfaction from their performance
Describe the characteristics of NAF a performer
1) Give up easily
2) Do not like feedback or evaluation
3) Take easy options
4) Lack confidence
5) Avoid 50/50 challenges
What type of behaviour shown by NACH performers?
What type of behaviour shown by NAF performers?
The combination of the situational and personality factors that decide the level of achievement motivation.
What determines the NACH or NAF approach?
Depends on the interaction of personality and situation. In terms of personality, some performers will have the need to achieve where is others will have the need to avoid failure. In terms of the situation, the performer has to gauge the probability of success in the task and the incentive gained from that success. This leads to success being different but no sense of pride been achieved and this approach may be adopted by a person with the need to avoid
failure. However the undertaking of the task with a high degree of difficulty that requires some risky and difficult moves when completed provides satisfaction and pride and is adopted by the need to achieve.
Describe the strategies in which coaches can try and improve the approach behaviour in players.
1) Reinforcement. The coach should offer praise and rewards to players who do you well or achieve their goals, so the players keep the desire to do well in the future, thus promoting task persistence.
2) Attribute success internally. The coach should tell the player that any success achieved was down to something for which the player has responsibility.
3) Allowing success. To encourage the belief in success and improve the confidence of the performer, the coach could set tasks and training drills that can be accomplished with little effort in the early development of the player and perhaps in the early part of the training sessions.
4) Improving confidence.
5) Goal setting. Coaches and players should set goals that are achievable with effort. This means there is a satisfaction to be gained from achieving the goal. Once a goal is reached another challenge can be set so that the performers always has a realistic target to aim for.
What is the achievement goal theory?
Achievement goal theory suggests that motivation and task persistence dependent on the type of goals set by the performer and how they measure success.
What is confidence?
A belief in the ability to master a task.
What does confidence depend on?
Confidence is another psychological concept that depends on interaction: the interaction of experience, personality and situation. It makes sense to suggest that if you have experience of an activity you are more likely to perform better at it, especially if that experience has been positive.
What are the two types of confidence?
Trait confidence and state confidence
Define trait confidence.
A belief in the ability to do well in a range of sports.
Define state confidence
Belief in the ability to master a specific sporting moment.
What is the difference between trait confidence and state confidence?
Trait confidence refers to a consistent level of a person's confidence whereas state confidence refers to a person's confidence in a specific sporting situation.
Define competitive orientation
The degree to which a performer is drawn to challenging situations.
What does the objective sporting situation take into account?
The performance takes into account the situation in which the task being undertaken.
What does the Vealey model of sports confidence suggest?
Vealey suggested that confidence gained in one area of sport could be used to improve confidence in a different sporting activity. She used the idea of trait confidence, the performer would rate the chances of doing well in the range of sports, and the idea of state confidence, where performer would rate the chances of doing well in one specific situation. It was suggested that these two influences combine to produce a level of confidence in an objective sporting situation. The result or outcome of the performance of the skill in that situation is then evaluated by the player. The result of that judgement may then lead to improved confidence in future activities and the player may go on to develop a competitive orientation. If the subjective outcome is good then trait confidence and competitive orientation increase however if the subjective outcome is bad then both trait confidence and competitive orientation decrease.
A belief in the ability to master a specific sporting situation.
Explain the factors that affect self-efficacy.
1) Performance accomplishments - this means self-efficacy is influenced by what you have done in the past or your past experiences. Performance accomplishments can be enhanced if the players not only achieved the win but enjoyed the experience too.
2) Vicarious experience - is concerned with watching others do the same task being successful. The person being watched is the model and the effect of seeing others do the task well is even better if those models are perceived to have similar ability to a performer.
3) Verbal persuasion - This refers to the power of reinforcement and encouragement. Praise from others such as the coach, fellow players or spectators gives a player a real incentives and confidence to repeat the successful attempt. Verbal persuasion is more effective if it comes from someone with a high esteem. For young players, the benefit of positive comments such as 'well done', it is essential in building confidence.
4) Emotional arousal - Dealing with emotion in sport, such as keeping calm and maintaining your control and game strategy when you are very close to getting a big win, is essential to good performance. Such situations in sport cause an increase in anxiety and the key to emotional arousal is how the performer perceives the increased arousal before and during the activity. Teams and players that deal with arousal better get the bests results.
Define performance accomplishments.
What you have already achieved.
Define vicarious experience.
Seeing others do the task.
Define verbal persuasion.
Encouragement from others
Define emotional arousal
A perception of the effects of anxiety of performance.
How can coaches and players use the four influences on self-efficacy, to help and improve and promote player confidence?
-Control arousal with relaxation or stress management techniques such as visualisation.
-Give an accurate demonstration (either by a player of an equal level or by a role model)
-Point out past success performances.
-Give support and encouragement.
-Allow success during training by setting tasks within the capability of the performer.
-Set attainable goals. Once these goals have been reached, a further more challenging goal can be set. The goals set should not alway be about winning - performance and progress goals that concern improvement in technique and getting a better personal result could also be set. It is important that goals should avoid social comparisons.
-Attribute any success achieved to the athlete, suggesting it is the athletes ability or effort that produced a good result.
-The coach or player may use the technique of mental practice to help the performer go over a routine or sequence in the mind. The coach can also offer a one-to-one coaching session, when the performer is given specific attention and help with weaknesses in their own individual performance.
What does self-efficacy lead to regarding a performers character?
Self-efficacy increases positive attitudes, increases motivation, reduces fear of failure, reduces anxiety and helps to reach optimal arousal levels.
Explain the home-field advantage
The home-field advantage is a balance between confidence and anxiety - the influence of the home crowd can increase confidence in the home team and cause anxiety in the away team. Often the team playing at home wins the game because the home audience support increases players' motivation but and confidence. The familiarity with the home environment and not having to travel are also further reasons why more games are won at home. Playing at home remind may mean the home team plays in a more fluent style since they feel more at ease and more confident. The home audience can cause 'functional assertive behaviour' in the home team, causing them to have more drive, more assertion and the correct choice of response. In addition to helping the home team, the home crowd can have a negative effect on the away team, causing increased anxiety with hostile chanting. This can lead to a less effective performance and the away team might suffer from social inhibition. However sometimes the home crowd can have a negative effect on the home team. The home crowd can cause the home team to 'choke' in a big game, with the increased pressure of the game causing the catastrophe effect when the players suffer a dramatic reduction in performance.
When is the home field advantage more effective?
- The effect of the home-field advantage is increased in stadiums where the crowds are close to the pitch. In large stadiums the crowd may be far away and the help of the home support is ineffective.
- The bigger and more support of the crowd, the better the effect is for the home team; the more hostile the crowd is to the away team, the more negative the effect is for them.
What is the difference between self-confidence and self efficacy?
Self confidence is the belief in the ability to master a task (general) whereas self efficacy is a belief in the ability to master a specific sporting situation (specific).
Someone who has influence in helping others to achieve their goals.
Define prescribed leader
Appointed from outside the group.
Define emergent leader
Appointed from within the group.
What is the main role of the leader?
The leader plays a key role in maintaining effort and motivation by inspiring the team and setting targets.
In order for a leader to be effective what are the necessary qualities?
1) Charisma - A certain demeanour and presence that the leader has which makes others listen and follow.
2) Communication - Leader has to get the message across.
3) Interpersonal skills - Leader needs to interact with other members of the team and sometimes those outside the group.
4) Empathy - Leader needs to be able to listen to others and take their views into account, showing an understanding of their views.
5) Experience - Need a wealth of knowledge in their chosen sport built up over many years.
6) Inspirational - Leaders need to encourage others and keep them trying even when it gets tough.
7) Confidence - Confidence can be gained from others and so a confident approach from the leader can be spread to the players.
8) Organisational skills - A good leader would plan and prepare for training, linking it to the demands of the team.
What are the three styles of leadership identified by Lewin?
- The autocratic and task orientated style
- The democratic and person-orientated style
- The laissez-faire style
Define autocratic approach
A leader that makes the decision.
Define a democratic approach
Decisions are made by group consultation.
Define person-orientated leadership
Concerned with interpersonal relationships.
Define task leadership
Concerned with getting results.
Describe the autocratic and task orientated style of leadership.
In this approach, the leader makes all the decisions and dictates instructions to the group. An autocratic leader adopts the task orientated style. In the task orientated style the concern of the leaders to get results and reach targets. The coach will need to stay with the group and maintain contact throughout the session, since the group tends to switch off when this style is used if the coach is not there.
Given example of when the autocratic and task-orientated style of leadership can be used.
An autocratic approach could be used by a coach who has made a specific plan to win a game.
Describe the democratic and person-orientated style of leadership.
In this method, the coach adopts a more sympathetic approach to leadership and seeks the opinion of the group before making decisions, based on those suggestions. A democratic leader adopts a person-orientated style. In this style, group usually continues to work on the coach is not present.
Describe the Laissez-faire style of leadership.
In the style, the leader does very little and leaves the group to it. It may be that the manager simply tells the players what the manager want from them in a training session and then goes away to conduct some other business, safe in the knowledge that the senior players will conduct the session to help out the team for the expected win in the next match. There is a danger however the less motivated players will stop working if they are left alone.
When can the Laissez-faire style be used effectively?
When the group has plenty of experience.
What can leaders use to determine the best leadership style for a group?
Fiedler's contingency model of leadership.
Explain Fielder's contingency model of leadership.
Fiedler took into account one of the factors that influence leadership style: the situation. He suggested that an autocratic or task orientated style of leadership is best used in two opposite situations: when everything is good and when everything is bad. Fiedler called a situation when everything is good a most favourable situation and when everything is bad a least favourable situation. In the middle ground when the situation is between good and bad and he called it a moderately favourable situation and suggested that a person orientated style is best used.
How favourable the situation is depends on what?
- The task
- The leader-group relationship
- The leaders position of authority
List characteristics of a most favourable situation.
- Leader has respect
- Good support within the group
- Group is of high ability
- High levels of motivation
- Task is clear to the team
- Harmony between leader and group
List characteristics of a least favourable situation.
- Hostility between group members
- Little respect for the leader
- Group has low ability
- Group members do not support each other
- Motivation is low
- Task is unclear
- Leader is weak
List characteristics of a moderately favourable situation.
- Need or preference for consultation within the group
- Motivation is moderate
- Limited support
- Group has reasonable ability
When is the task style of leadership best used?
In both most favourable situations and least favourable situations.
When is the person-orientated style of leadership best used?
In moderately favourable situations.
Explain Chelladurai's multi dimensional model of leadership.
Chelladurai looked at other factors that influence the choice of leadership style. He assessed the idea that the leader must use an interactive approach to balance the requirements of the situation, the needs of the group and the leader's own preferences. His suggestion was the more the leader actually used a style to match the requirements of the situation and the needs of the group, then the more satisfaction would be gained from the performance. The importance of the situation would include the type of task being formed (individual or team sports require different leadership styles therefore the size of a good influences the situation). The features of a group further affect the style of leadership depending on their preferences.
Define required behaviour
What the situation demands.
Define actual behaviour
What the leader decides to do in relation to leadership style.
Define preferred behaviour
What the group wants.
In the Chelladurai model, once the three influences on leader behaviour have been assessed, what does the leader then do?
The leader can then choose how to behave with the group. The required behaviour of the leader is the result of an assessment of situation. The actual behaviour of the leader may be chosen to match both the situation and the group demands. The preferred behaviour is the result of what the group want or prefer.
And negative response of the body to the threat of causing anxiety.
Positive response of the body to a threat.
Which type of sports provide eustress?
Extreme sports such as sky diving.
Define cognitive effects of stress
These are psychological.
Define somatic effects of stress
These are physiological.
What are the two types of negative responses to stress?
A cause of stress.
List examples of stressors.
- Playing in an important match
- Playing against really good opponents
- Playing to get an important reward such as prize money
- Fear of failure caused by pressure from being watched by significant others, pressure from the coach or pressure from your own expectations.
What happens when you are suffering cognitive stress?
- It brings negative thoughts and feelings, including the rational thinking of the inability to cope with the demands of the situation.
-It can lead to a loss of concentration which may be linked to the process of attentional narrowing when, as arousal and anxiety levels increase, the ability to take in information or cues from the environment is reduced and therefore some important information maybe missed at higher levels of stress.
What happens somatically when you are stressed?
- Increase in heart rate
-Increase in sweating.
- Nausea and a feeling of sickness.
- Muscular tension sometimes seen in sports performers when they are involved in high-pressure, isolated situations.
What are the cognitive stress management techniques?
- Thought stopping
- Positive self talk
- Mental rehearsal
- Attentional control and cue utilisation
- Psychological skills training
Explain thought stopping and how it act as a cognitive stress management technique.
When negative and irrational thought occurs, the performer uses a learned action or trigger to remove them. This learned physical action or cue can be a simple movement or rehearsed action that is linked to the negative thought to redirect attention to the task in hand. The prior learning of the cueing action is vital to the success of this technique.
Explain positive self-talk and how it act as a cognitive stress management technique.
Self talk is when the performer replace negative thoughts with positive ones. Self talk can also be used in other ways for example it could help the player to focus on a tactical instruction from the coach and it can be used to overcome a weakness.
Explain imagery and how it act as a cognitive stress management technique.
Imagery can recreate a successful image of the action from the past performance when the skill was performed successfully and the player can recall the feel of the actual movements in the mind. Imagery can go even further and use not only the actual feel of the movement but the emotions associated with that successful action. Some players use imagery to avoid stressful situations by imagining a calm place and therefore use it as a mental escape from the stress.
Explain visualisation and how it act as a cognitive stress management technique.
Visualisation uses a mental image of the skill, an image perfected while performing skills successfully in training. This image is then 'locked in' and re-lived when the skill is performed for real.
What is the difference between an external image and internal image?
An external image is when the player has an image that concentrates on the environment, almost as if the player is watching themselves on television. Internal imagery looks the emotions and feelings involved in the skill, such as the sense of kinaesthesis used to develop a feel of the movement or satisfaction gained from completing the successful action.
Explain mental rehearsal and how it act as a cognitive stress management technique.
This is the process of going over the movements of the task in the mind before the action takes place. Mental rehearsal is especially useful for athletes about to perform a sequence of skills such as a routine on the trampoline. The idea is that if the required movements are rehearsed in order and in spatial sequence, then the performer is less likely to forget the order of the moves or the required actions and therefore stress is reduced. Mental rehearsal is best done in a calm situation prior to the event.
Explain attentional control and cue utilisation and how it act as a cognitive stress management technique.
One of the consequences of stress is that a performer may lose concentration and focus on incorrect stimuli from the environment. As stress and arousal and increase, then the ability to take in information reduces this is known as attentional narrowing. The effect of emotion on cue utilisation suggested that the ability to take in information is directly linked to the level of arousal, cue utilisation. Therefore at low-levels of stress and arousal the performer is able to process plenty of cues from the environment however sometimes a high amount of information is taken note of, which can cause confusion and incorrect information could be mistaken for important cues. At high levels of arousal and stress, only limited information can be processed and this may cause important information to be missed a problem known as attentional wastage. It means that important information has been ignored and therefore reduces the level of performance. At moderate levels of arousal, the performer picks up the relevant information and performance can be successful. There are four styles of attentional control and the performer must choose the right style at the right time (style that suits the situation). The idea behind the use of attentional control is that if the correct style is chosen at the right time, then stress is lowered and performance is enhanced. During a game an experienced player may learn to switch styles as appropriate and therefore make correct choices.
Define Cue utilisation
The ability to process information is directly linked to the level of arousal.
What are the four styles of attention that can be used in sporting context? How can the four styles then be combined?
1) Broad, when the number of cues can be identified.
2) Narrow, when is best to focus on one or two cues.
3) External, when information is drawn from the environment.
4) Internal when information is used from with in the performer.
These styles can be then combined into broad external, broad internal, narrow external and narrow internal.
Explain psychological skills training and how it act as a cognitive stress management technique.
The performer can train and practice using any methods explained as cognitive stress management techniques. Many professional sports clubs employ a sport psychologist just to do that. Players can be guided through aspects of visualisation and imagery.
What are the somatic stress management techniques?
- Progressive muscle relaxation
Explain biofeedback and how it act as a somatic stress management technique.
This technique uses a measuring device to help the athlete recognise the physical changes that will happen when under stress. Such measures would include the measure of heart rate, the galvanic skin response that measures the increase in electrical activity when sweating or electromyography that measures muscular tension with electrodes attached to the skin. The idea is that the athlete learns to recognise when such physical symptoms are happening and can eventually do so without the use of measuring device. As soon as the signs are recognised, the performer can then use techniques to calm down and reduce stress.
Explain progressive muscle relaxation and how it act as a somatic stress management technique.
This is a physical technique, often conducted with the use of recorded instructions, when the performer alternates between the state of tension in a group of muscles to a state of relaxation in the same muscles. The groups of muscles that are tensed, held and then relaxed are worked progressively from the periphery of the body to the core. The muscles of the arms, shoulders and legs may be worked on at the first time until the abdominal muscles are utilised.
Explain centring and how it act as a somatic stress management technique.
Centring is a form of breathing control when, at opportune times, the sports performer can learn to relax the shoulders and chest while concentrating on the slow movement of the abdominal muscles when taking deep controlled breaths. The use of the slow controlled breathing diverts the attention away from the stressful situation and once the technique has been mastered, the athlete can use it quickly when the need arises.
A perception of the reason for an outcome of an event.
What does correct attributions increase?
What are the two sections of Weiner's classification for winning and losing?
- Locus of causality
Define the internal attribute
Within the performer's control.
Define the external attribute
Outside the performer's control.
What is the locus of causality?
The locus of causality is the point where a reason might be placed, it looks at the amount of control the player had over the result and can be internal or external.
What is the locus of causality divided into?
Give an example of an internal attribute of the locus of causality.
Give an example of an external attribute of the locus of causality.
Luck or decision of the referee.
What is the stability dimension?
The stability dimension looks at how much the reasons for winning and losing can be changed. This includes a stable and unstable reason.
What is the stability divided into?
- Stable attribute
- Unstable attribute
Define stable attribute
Unlikely to change in the short-term.
Define unstable attribute
Can change in a short amount of time.
Define self-serving bias
Using external and/or unstable reasons for losing.
How is self-serving bias used to maintain motivation?
To maintain motivation, losing is blamed on external stable reasons, external unstable reasons or internal unstable reasons. A coach should ensure a player blames a loss on these factors and not internal stable reasons. A coach should also make sure that players feel a loss can be changed, so changeable and internal reasons can be used to explain defeat. Coaches and players should never give reasons for losing that are stable and internal, such as player ability, since this might cause the player to lose motivation otherwise the problem of learned helplessness could occur.
Define learned helplessness
Using internal stable reasons for losing.
Explain how confidence can be badly affected by learned helplessness
When self-doubt or lack of belief in an ability begins to affect the player, then confidence is lowered. Confidence can be badly affected by learned helplessness, when a performer begins to doubt if they can actually complete the task successfully. The performer is so lacking in confidence that they think that failure is inevitable and success is unlikely; no belief in ability. The player may even give up even is success is possible and they could have actually won the game. Learned helplessness can be so bad it becomes general, when the player begins to feel they are no good at sport overall or at a type of sport. Therefore, learned helplessness can be both general or specific.
How is learned helplessness developed?
- Attributing success to internal and stable factors
- Lack of success or negative experiences
Define attribution retraining
Changing the reasons given for success and failure.
How can learned helplessness be overcome?
How would a coach use attribution retraining to overcome learned helplessness?
- The key to attribution retraining is to change the perception and belief of the sportsperson by changing the reasons given for failure. To overcome learned helplessness the coach should change internal stable reasons of failure into external unstable ones.
- The coach could also provide motivation via reinforcement
- Allow early success so that confidence in ability is achieve
- Set achievable goals
- Stress any personal improvements made during the game (These strategies help to promote self-esteem in players)
-Learned helplessness is linked to confidence, so using some of the strategies that affect confidence will help overcome learned helplessness.
-Using cognitive and somatic stress management techniques also work as a form of attribution retraining.