Chapter 3 - Perception Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Perception Deck (37):
1

perception

experiences resulting from stimulation of the senses

2

inverse projection problem

the task of determining the object that caused a particular image on the retina.

3

viewpoint invariance

the ability to recognize an object seen from different viewpoints.

4

bottom-up processing

processing the starts at the "bottom" or beginning of the system.

when environmental energy stimulates the receptors.

also called data-based processing.

5

top-down processing

processing the starts at the "top" or beginning of the perceptual system

processing that originates in the brain.

6

speech segmentation

the ability to tell when one word ends and next word begins.

7

action pathway

Neural pathway, extending from the occipital love to the parietal love, that is associated with neural processing that occurs when people take action.

corresponds to the WHERE pathway

8

apparent movement

an illusion of movement perception that occurs when stimuli in different locations are flashed one after another with the proper timing.

(the galloping horse carousel)

9

Bayesian inference

the idea that our estimate of the probability of an outcome is determined by the prior probability (our initial belief) and the likelihood (the extent to which the available evidence is consistent with the outcome)

10

brain ablation

a procedure in which a specific area is removed from an animal's brain. It is usually done to determine the function of this area by assessing the effect on the animal's behavior.

11

direct pathway model

model of pain perception that proposes the pain signals are sent directly from receptors to the brain.

12

experience-dependent plasticity

a mechanism that causes an organism's neurons to develop so they respond best to the type of stimulation to which the organism has been exposed.

13

Gestalt psychologist

a group of psychologists who proposed principles governing perception, such as laws of organization, and a perceptual approach to problem solving involving restructuring.

14

law of pragnanz

law of perceptual organization that states that every stimulus pattern is seen in such a way that the resulting structure is as simple as possible.

also called the law of good figure and the law of simplicity

15

landmark discrimination problem

problem in which the task is to remember an object's location and to choose that location after a delay.

Associated with research on the WHERE processing stream.

16

light-from-above assumption

the assumption that light is coming from above. this is a heuristic that can influence how we perceive three-dimensional objects that are illuminated.

17

likelihood

In Bayesian inference, the extent to which the available evidence is consistent with the outcome.

18

likelihood principle

part of Helmoltz's theory of unconscious inference that states that we perceive the object that is MOST LIKELY to have caused the pattern of stimuli we have received.

19

object discrimination problem

a problem in which the task is to remember an object based on its shape and choose it when presented with another object after delay.

Associated with research on the WHAT processing stream.

20

oblique effect

the finding that vertical and horizontal orientations can be perceived more easily than other (slanted) orientations.

21

perception pathway

neural pathway, extending from the occipital lobe to the temporal lobe, that is associated with perceiving or recognizing objects.

Corresponds to the WHAT pathway.

22

physical regularities

regularly occurring physical properties of the environment.

For example, there are more vertical and horizontal orientations in the environment that oblique (angled) orientations.

23

placebo

a pill or procedure that patients believe delivers active ingredients, but which contains no active ingredient.

24

placebo effect

a decrease in pain from a procedure or substance that delivers no active ingredient

25

principle of good continuation

law of perceptual organization stating that points that, when connected, result in straight or smoothly curving lines are seen as belonging together.

In addition, lines tend to be seen as following the smoothest path.

26

principle of good figure

law of perceptual organization that states that every stimulus pattern is seen in such a way that the resulting structure is as simple as possible.

also principle of good figure and law of pragnanz

27

principle of similarity

law of perceptual organization that states that similar things appear to be group together.

28

principle of simplicity

law of perceptual organization that states that every stimulus pattern is seen in such a way that the resulting structure is as simple as possible.

also principle of good figure and law of pragnanz

29

principle of perceptual organization

rules proposed by the Gestalt psychologists to explain how small elements of a scene or display become perceptually grouped to form larger units.

30

prior OR prior probability

a persons initial belief about the probability of an outcome.

31

regularities in the environment

characteristics of the environment that occurs frequently.

for example, blue is associated with open sky, landscapes are often green and smooth, and verticals and horizontals are often associated with buildings.

32

scene schema

a person's knowledge about what is likely to be contained in a particular scene.

The knowledge of what is usually in an office may cause a person to look toward the desk to see the computer

33

semantic regularities

characteristics associated with the functions carried out in different types of scenes.

for example, food preparation, cooking, and perhaps eating occur in a kitchen.

34

theory of natural selection

Darwin's theory that characteristics that enhance an animal's ability to survive and reproduce will be passed on to future generations.

35

unconscious inference

Helmholtz's idea that some of our perceptions are the result of unconscious assumptions that we make about the environment.

36

WHAT pathway

neural pathway, extending from the occipital lobe to the temporal lobe, that is associated with perceiving or recognizing objects.

Corresponds to the perception pathway.

37

Where pathway

Neural pathway, extending from the occipital lobe to the parietal lobe, that is associated with neural processing that occurs when people locate objects in space.

roughly corresponds to the action pathway.