Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Short-Term and Working Memory Deck (39):
the process involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills after the original information is no longer present.
the retention, for brief periods of time, of the effect of sensory stimulation.
EX: the trail left by a moving sparkler
modal model of memory
describes memory as a mechanism that involves processing information through a series of stages, including short-term memory and long-term memory.
who proposed the modal model of memory
Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin
structural features of memory models
types of memory indicated by boxes in models of memory.
structural features of the modal model of memory
sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory
dynamic processes associated with the structural features that can be controlled by the person and may differ from one task to another.
the repeating of a stimulus over and over.
EX: repeated of a phone number
persistence of vision
the continued perception of a visual stimulus even after it is no longer present.
whole report method
when participants are instructed to report all of the stimuli they are presented.
partial report method
participants are instructed to report only some of the stimuli presented with a tone immediately after the visual stimulation to instruct which display to report.
delayed partial report method
participants are instructed to report only some of the stimuli presented with a delayed tone after the visual stimulation to instruct which display to report.
iconic memory/visual icon
brief sensory memory for visual stimuli that lasts for a fraction of a second after a stimulus is extinguished.
corresponds to the sensory memory stage of the modal model of memory.
brief sensory memory for auditory stimuli that last for a few seconds after a stimulus is extinguished.
short-term memory (STM)
the system involved in storing small amounts of information for a brief period of time.
when subjects are presented with a stimuli and then, after a delay, are asked to report back as many of the stimuli as possible.
information that is lost from memory due to the passage of time.
interference that occurs when information that was learned previously interferes with learning new information.
when new learning interferes with remembering old learning.
the number of digits a person can remember.
the ability to detect differences between pictures or displays that are presented one after another.
combining small units into larger ones, such as when individual words are combined into a meaningful sentence.
chunking can be used to increase the capacity of memory.
a collection of elects that are strongly associated with each other but weakly associated with elements in other chunks.
a limited-capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning.
the part of working memory that holds and processes verbal and auditory information.
consists of the phonological store and the articulatory rehearsal process.
component of the phonological loop.
holds a limited amount of verbal and auditory information for a few seconds.
articulatory rehearsal process
component of the phonological loop.
rehearsal process involved in working memory that keeps items in the phonological store from decaying.
visuospatial sketch pad
holds visual and spatial information.
The part of working memory that coordinates the activity of the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketch pad.
the "traffic cop" of the working memory system.
phonological similarity effect
the confusion of letters or words that sound similar.
word length effect
the notion that it is more difficult to remember a list of long words than a list of short words.
Interference with operation of the phonological loop that occurs when a person repeats an irrelevant word such as "the" while carrying out a task that requires the phonological loop.
the creation of visual images in the mind in the absence of a physical visual stimulus.
rotating an image of an object in the mind.
repeatedly performing the same action or thought even if it is not achieving the desired goal.
event-related potential (ERP)
an electrical potential, recorded with disc electrodes on a person's scalp, that reflects the response of many thousands of neurons near the electrode that fire together.
A component added to Baddeley's original working memory model.
Serves as a "backup" storage that communicates with both LTM and the components of working memory.
Holds information longer and has greater capacity than the phonological loop or visuospatial sketch pad.
a task in which information is provided, a delay is imposed, and then memory is tested.
has been used to study short-term memory by testing monkeys' ability to hold information about the location of a food reward during a delay.