Chapter 5 - Short-Term and Working Memory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Short-Term and Working Memory Deck (39):
1

memory

the process involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills after the original information is no longer present.

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sensory memory

the retention, for brief periods of time, of the effect of sensory stimulation.

EX: the trail left by a moving sparkler

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modal model of memory

describes memory as a mechanism that involves processing information through a series of stages, including short-term memory and long-term memory.

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who proposed the modal model of memory

Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin

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structural features of memory models

types of memory indicated by boxes in models of memory.

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structural features of the modal model of memory

sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory

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control processes

dynamic processes associated with the structural features that can be controlled by the person and may differ from one task to another.

8

rehearsal

the repeating of a stimulus over and over.

EX: repeated of a phone number

9

persistence of vision

the continued perception of a visual stimulus even after it is no longer present.

10

whole report method

when participants are instructed to report all of the stimuli they are presented.

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partial report method

participants are instructed to report only some of the stimuli presented with a tone immediately after the visual stimulation to instruct which display to report.

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delayed partial report method

participants are instructed to report only some of the stimuli presented with a delayed tone after the visual stimulation to instruct which display to report.

13

iconic memory/visual icon

brief sensory memory for visual stimuli that lasts for a fraction of a second after a stimulus is extinguished.

corresponds to the sensory memory stage of the modal model of memory.

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echoic memory

brief sensory memory for auditory stimuli that last for a few seconds after a stimulus is extinguished.

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short-term memory (STM)

the system involved in storing small amounts of information for a brief period of time.

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recall

when subjects are presented with a stimuli and then, after a delay, are asked to report back as many of the stimuli as possible.

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decay

information that is lost from memory due to the passage of time.

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proactive interference

interference that occurs when information that was learned previously interferes with learning new information.

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retroactive interference

when new learning interferes with remembering old learning.

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digit span

the number of digits a person can remember.

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change detection

the ability to detect differences between pictures or displays that are presented one after another.

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chunking

combining small units into larger ones, such as when individual words are combined into a meaningful sentence.

chunking can be used to increase the capacity of memory.

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chunk

a collection of elects that are strongly associated with each other but weakly associated with elements in other chunks.

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working memory

a limited-capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning.

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phonological loop

the part of working memory that holds and processes verbal and auditory information.

consists of the phonological store and the articulatory rehearsal process.

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phonological store

component of the phonological loop.

holds a limited amount of verbal and auditory information for a few seconds.

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articulatory rehearsal process

component of the phonological loop.

rehearsal process involved in working memory that keeps items in the phonological store from decaying.

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visuospatial sketch pad

holds visual and spatial information.

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central executive

The part of working memory that coordinates the activity of the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketch pad.

the "traffic cop" of the working memory system.

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phonological similarity effect

the confusion of letters or words that sound similar.

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word length effect

the notion that it is more difficult to remember a list of long words than a list of short words.

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articulatory suppression

Interference with operation of the phonological loop that occurs when a person repeats an irrelevant word such as "the" while carrying out a task that requires the phonological loop.

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visual imagery

the creation of visual images in the mind in the absence of a physical visual stimulus.

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mental rotation

rotating an image of an object in the mind.

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perseveration

repeatedly performing the same action or thought even if it is not achieving the desired goal.

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event-related potential (ERP)

an electrical potential, recorded with disc electrodes on a person's scalp, that reflects the response of many thousands of neurons near the electrode that fire together.

37

episodic buffer

A component added to Baddeley's original working memory model.

Serves as a "backup" storage that communicates with both LTM and the components of working memory.

Holds information longer and has greater capacity than the phonological loop or visuospatial sketch pad.

38

delayed-response task

a task in which information is provided, a delay is imposed, and then memory is tested.

has been used to study short-term memory by testing monkeys' ability to hold information about the location of a food reward during a delay.

39

neural mind reading

using a neural response, usually brain activation measured by fMRI, to determine what a person is perceiving or thinking.