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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Theories of Child Development Deck (31)
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Whose theory proposed that human traits are determined primarily by genetics: where children simply mature with age and environment plays a minor role?




*Maturationist Theory




This type of theory proposes that human traits are qcquired through experiences within the environment.  Adults can purposefully shape desired learning and behavior through positive reinforcement.




Behaviorist Theory

*Skinner, Watson, Bandura



Theory which proposes that emotional development stems fron an ability to resolve key conflicts between desires and impulses and pressures from the outside world.  Adults can promote children's emotional health by providing appropriate opportunities for the gratification of drives.




Psychoanalytic Theory

*Freud, Erikson



Theory where intellectual development is internal and personal.  Knowledge is constructed actively by learners, who struggle to make sense out of experience.  Learners assimilate new ideas into what they already know, but also adjust previous thinking to accomodate new information



Cognitive-Developmental Theory





Theory where adults and peers can "scaffold" children's learning by asking questions or challenging thinking.  Through social interaction and verbalization, children construct knowledge of the world.



Sociocultural Theory




Theory that proposes knowledge is acquired by applying specific thinking processes in order to pay attention to, store, remember, retrieve, and modify information over time.  Children learn in social situations by noticing social cues, storing these in memory, and retrieving and applying them in subsequent interactions with others.



Information Processing Theory

*Siegler, Dodge




Theory that proposes development is influenced by the personal, social, and political systems within which children live.  Interactions among the family, school, community, social and political system, and the individual child will determine developmental outcomes.




Ecological Systems Theory





Gesell conducted controlled observations of thousands of children in order to identify _______ : specific characteristics that are expected to emerge in children at various age intervals




Developmental Milestones





Within the behaviorist theory: these two types of conditioning are present




Operant and Classical




Type of conditioning where a neutral stimulus is paired with a pleasurable one.  The subject responds in the same way to the neutral stimulus as to the pleasurable one




Classical Conditioning





Type of conditioning where a desired behavior is immediately rewarded




Operant Conditioning





The type of theory that involves the id, ego and superego




Psychoanalytic Theory




This part of "you" contains the instinctual urges and strives for immediate gratification but is kept in check by the "others"









This part of "you" that is rational and regulates and redirects the instinctual impulses of the Id.









Part of "you" that is your conscience, which includes values and mores of one's culture








Stage of Emotional Development where children must come to trust and that basic needs will be met by caregivers and that the world is a predictable and safe place




Trust vs Mistrust

*birth to 18 months




Stage where children must acquire a sense of independence from parents and a belief that they can do things on their own



Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt

*18 months to 3.5 years




Stage where children must feel free to act, create, to express themselves creatively, and to take risks



Initiative v Guilt

*3.5 to 6 years




Stage where children must feel competent in skills valued by society.  They need to feel successful in relation to peers and in the eyes of significant adults.



Industry v Inferiority

*6 to 12 years





Theory that holds mental growth as the most important element in children's development




Cognitive-Developmental Theory





Humans integrate new ideas or information into what they already know about









Humans modify what they already know to make room for new ideas or information









Stage where infants rely solely on action and the senses to know things




*0 to 18 months




Stage where primarily toddlers and preschool children can use symbols and internal thoughts to solve problems.  Thinking is still tied to concrete objects to the here and now.



Preoperational Stage

*18 months to 6/7 years




Stage where primarily elementary school childre are more abstract in their thinking.  They can use early logic to solve some problems and are less fooled by perception.



Concrete Operational

*8 years to 12 years




Stage where primarily adolescents and adults can think abstractly and hypothetically.  They can contemplate the long ago and far away.



Formal Operational

*12 years to adulthood




Vygotsky proposed that children engage in two distinct and independent mental activities in the earliest months of life




Nonverbal thought and nonconceptual speech




An early form of mental activity in which children observe objects or events or perform actions without using language



Nonverbal thought





Early form of language in which children utter words or phrases without thinking fully what they mean




nonconceptual speech




Vygotsky proposed that this is a kind of thought in which language and thinking are integrated and mutually suppportive.  Children use language such as verbal labels and self-directed speech to guide learning




Verbal Thought