Chapter 3 Theories of Child Development Flashcards Preview

CD 480 > Chapter 3 Theories of Child Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 Theories of Child Development Deck (31)
Loading flashcards...
1

Whose theory proposed that human traits are determined primarily by genetics: where children simply mature with age and environment plays a minor role?

 

 

Gesell

*Maturationist Theory

2

 

 

This type of theory proposes that human traits are qcquired through experiences within the environment.  Adults can purposefully shape desired learning and behavior through positive reinforcement.

 

 

 

Behaviorist Theory

*Skinner, Watson, Bandura

3

 

Theory which proposes that emotional development stems fron an ability to resolve key conflicts between desires and impulses and pressures from the outside world.  Adults can promote children's emotional health by providing appropriate opportunities for the gratification of drives.

 

 

 

Psychoanalytic Theory

*Freud, Erikson

4

 

Theory where intellectual development is internal and personal.  Knowledge is constructed actively by learners, who struggle to make sense out of experience.  Learners assimilate new ideas into what they already know, but also adjust previous thinking to accomodate new information

 

 

Cognitive-Developmental Theory

*Piaget

5

 

 

Theory where adults and peers can "scaffold" children's learning by asking questions or challenging thinking.  Through social interaction and verbalization, children construct knowledge of the world.

 

 

Sociocultural Theory

*Vygotsky

6

 

Theory that proposes knowledge is acquired by applying specific thinking processes in order to pay attention to, store, remember, retrieve, and modify information over time.  Children learn in social situations by noticing social cues, storing these in memory, and retrieving and applying them in subsequent interactions with others.

 

 

Information Processing Theory

*Siegler, Dodge

7

 

 

Theory that proposes development is influenced by the personal, social, and political systems within which children live.  Interactions among the family, school, community, social and political system, and the individual child will determine developmental outcomes.

 

 

 

Ecological Systems Theory

*Bronfenbrenner

8

 

 

Gesell conducted controlled observations of thousands of children in order to identify _______ : specific characteristics that are expected to emerge in children at various age intervals

 

 

 

Developmental Milestones

9

 

 

 

Within the behaviorist theory: these two types of conditioning are present

 

 

 

Operant and Classical

10

 

 

Type of conditioning where a neutral stimulus is paired with a pleasurable one.  The subject responds in the same way to the neutral stimulus as to the pleasurable one

 

 

 

Classical Conditioning

11

 

 

 

Type of conditioning where a desired behavior is immediately rewarded

 

 

 

Operant Conditioning

12

 

 

 

The type of theory that involves the id, ego and superego

 

 

 

Psychoanalytic Theory

13

 

 

This part of "you" contains the instinctual urges and strives for immediate gratification but is kept in check by the "others"

 

 

 

Id

14

 

 

 

This part of "you" that is rational and regulates and redirects the instinctual impulses of the Id.

 

 

 

Ego

15

 

 

 

Part of "you" that is your conscience, which includes values and mores of one's culture

 

 

 

Superego

16

 

 

Stage of Emotional Development where children must come to trust and that basic needs will be met by caregivers and that the world is a predictable and safe place

 

 

 

Trust vs Mistrust

*birth to 18 months

17

 

 

Stage where children must acquire a sense of independence from parents and a belief that they can do things on their own

 

 

Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt

*18 months to 3.5 years

18

 

 

Stage where children must feel free to act, create, to express themselves creatively, and to take risks

 

 

Initiative v Guilt

*3.5 to 6 years

19

 

 

Stage where children must feel competent in skills valued by society.  They need to feel successful in relation to peers and in the eyes of significant adults.

 

 

Industry v Inferiority

*6 to 12 years

20

 

 

 

Theory that holds mental growth as the most important element in children's development

 

 

 

Cognitive-Developmental Theory

21

 

 

 

Humans integrate new ideas or information into what they already know about

 

 

 

Assimilation

22

 

 

 

Humans modify what they already know to make room for new ideas or information

 

 

 

Accomodation

23

 

 

 

Stage where infants rely solely on action and the senses to know things

 

 

Sensorimotor

*0 to 18 months

24

 

 

Stage where primarily toddlers and preschool children can use symbols and internal thoughts to solve problems.  Thinking is still tied to concrete objects to the here and now.

 

 

Preoperational Stage

*18 months to 6/7 years

25

 

 

Stage where primarily elementary school childre are more abstract in their thinking.  They can use early logic to solve some problems and are less fooled by perception.

 

 

Concrete Operational

*8 years to 12 years

26

 

 

Stage where primarily adolescents and adults can think abstractly and hypothetically.  They can contemplate the long ago and far away.

 

 

Formal Operational

*12 years to adulthood

27

 

 

Vygotsky proposed that children engage in two distinct and independent mental activities in the earliest months of life

 

 

 

Nonverbal thought and nonconceptual speech

28

 

 

An early form of mental activity in which children observe objects or events or perform actions without using language

 

 

Nonverbal thought

29

 

 

 

Early form of language in which children utter words or phrases without thinking fully what they mean

 

 

 

nonconceptual speech

30

 

 

Vygotsky proposed that this is a kind of thought in which language and thinking are integrated and mutually suppportive.  Children use language such as verbal labels and self-directed speech to guide learning

 

 

 

Verbal Thought