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What is early intervention?




A system of services designed to help infants and toddlers with developmental delay or disability.





Name the five developmental areas that are addressed in early intervention?


Physical Development (fine and gross motor)

Cognitive Development (thinking, learning, problem-solving)

Communication (understanding, talking, listening)

Social/emotional development (regulation, play)

Adaptive development (i.e. self-help) (dressing, feeding)




True or False

The following are services provided in Early Intervention: assistive technology, audiology, vision services, transportation, and family training










Early intervention services are provided in what kinds of environment?




Natural and Least Restrictive Environments




True or False

California's program: Early Start Program is made to ensure that early intervention services are provided to infants and toddlers with delay or disability in coordinated and family-centered system of services state wide








Persistent ____ can damage the developing brain, leading to lifelong problems in learning, behavior, physical and mental health.








True or False:

Autism occurs 4.5 times more common among boys (1 in 42) than among girls (1 in 189)








True or False

CP is the most common motor disability in children








True or False:

Infants and toddlers from birth to age 36 months have a developmental delay of at least 33% in areas of: cognitive, communication, social or emotional, adaptive, physical and motor development









Name some of the risk factors for infants who would be eligible for EI services

Prematurity or low birth weight

vision or hearing difficulties

prenatal exposure or other types of exposure to drugs, alcohol, or tobacco

Poor nutrition or difficulties eating (lack nutritious foods)

Exposure to lead-based paint

Environmental factors, such as abuse or neglect




Name some of the reasons for concern in regards to Behavior and Relationships:

avoids being held, does not like being touched

resists being calmed

avoids or rarely makes eye contact

@ four montsh: does not coo or smile when interacting with others

@ age one: does not play games such as peek-a-boo

@ age two: does not imitate parent or caregiver

acts agressively on a regular basis




Name some of the reasons for concern in regards to Hearing:

has frequent earaches

has had many ear, nose, or throat infections

does not look where sounds or voices are coming from

talks in a very loud voice

does not always respond when called from across a room

turns body so that same ear is always turned towards sound





Name some of the reasons for concern in regards to seeing:

has reddenned, watery eyes or crusty eyelids

rub eyes frequently

closes one eye or tilts head when looking at an object

has difficulty focusing or making eye contact

has an eye or eyes that are crossed or turned





Name some of the reasons for concern in regards to moving:

has stiff arms or legs

pushes away or arches back when held close

@ 4 months: does not hold head up

@ six months: does not roll over

@ age one: does not sit up or creep using hands and knees

@ age two: does not walk alone, difficulty holding large crayons

@ age three: poor coordination and falls or stumbles a lot when running





Name somes reasons for concerns in regards to communicating:

@ three months: does not coo or smile

@ six months: does not babble to get attention

@ age one: does not respond differently to words

@ age two: does not point or name objects or people to express wants or needs

@ age three: does not try familiar rhymes





Name reasons for concern in regards to cognition:

@ age one: difficulty finding an object after seeing it hidden

@ age two: does not pont to body parts when asked "where's your nose?"

@ age three: does not play make-believe games

@ age four: does not answer simple questions: what color is this?

@ age five: does not understand meaning of today, yesterday or tomorrow





What are some of the critiques of the Maturationist Theory?


research on IQ showed that environment accounts for more than half of 'innate' intelligence

if genetics predetermine: lead some parents to give up

lead to cultural bias: some races can be wrongly judged to being inferior




Name a critique for both Behavior and Social Learning Theories:



observing and imitating behavior and getting reinforced for it, does not explain the complex act of learning





Name a critique of the psychoanalytic theory:


Doesn't explain the development of the whole child, focuses on emotinal states

doesn't take into account other aspects: motor, intellectual, social and language

emotional stages reflect anglo-saxon culture and not other cultures





Name a critique for the Cognitive Development Theory:



research has shown that children have more intellectual capacity than what Piaget suggests

children in differen cultures develop specific skills at a faster rate based on their experiences






Name a critique for the Sociocultural Theory




Vygotsky died prematurely, leaving his theory incomplete