Flashcards in Chapter 3- Unit 1 Deck (12):
What are two other names for respondent conditioning?
Pavlovian conditioning or classical conditioning
What are respondent behaviours ?
Give 3 examples.
Respondent behaviours are behaviours that are elicited by prior stimuli and not affected by their consequences.
1. Salivating when smelling dinner cooking
2. Feeling frightened when watching a scary movie
3. Blushing when told your fly or blouse is undone
State the principle of respondent conditioning. Clearly diagram an example.
If a natural stimulus that does not elicit a particular response) is closely followed in time by a second stimulus that elicits a particular response, then the neutral stimulus will come to licit the response of gag was elicited by the second stimulus. Another name for respondent conditioning is Pavlovian conditioning, or classical conditioning. The diagram of the example should be modelled after figure 3-1
Unconditioned stimulus-> food
Unconditioned response-> salivation
Procedure: pair neural stimulus and unconditioned stimulus
- many pairings if NS (sound of classical music)
With US (food in mouth)-> UR (salivation)
Result: neutral stimulus acquires ability to elicit response
- CS (sound of classical music)-> CR (salivation)
Define and give an example of the following: unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus and conditioned response .
A) unconditioned stimulus- stimulus that elicits a response without prior learning learning or conditioning is called is called an unconditioned stimulus
B)unconditioned response- a response elicited by unconditioned stimulus is called an unconditioned response
C) conditioned stimulus- designed as a stimulus that elicits a response because that stimulus has been paired with another that elicits that response.
-ex. The opening motif of Beethoven’s fifth symphony
D) conditioned response- defined as a response elicited by a conditioned stimulus
- ex. Salivation to the opening of motif of Beethoven’s fifth symphony)
Briefly in a sentence each describe five variables that influence the development of a conditioned reflex.
1. The tester he number of pairings a CS with a US, the greater is the ability of the CS to elicit the CR, until a maximum strength of the CR has been reached.
2. Second, stringer conditioning occur is the CS precedes the US by about half a second rather than a longer time following the US
3. A CS squires a greater ability to elicit a CR if the CA us Ali ways paired with the US then I’d it is only occasionally paired with the US.
4. When several neutral stimuli precedes a US, the stimulus that is most consistently associated with the US is the one most likely to become a strong CS.
5. Respondent conditioning will develop more quickly and strongly when the CS or US are intense rather than weak
Diagram an example if higher order conditioning
Higher order conditioning is the procedure in which a neutral sinuous becomes a conditioned stimulus by being paired with another conditioned stimulus instead if with an unconditioned sinuous l. In the example from question 6: you were to flash a yellow light several times prior to the opening of motif I’d Beethoven’s fifth symphony (a CS for salivating) eventually the yellow light itself would elicit the CR of salvation.
What is biological preparedness? Give an example.
Biological preparedness is a term coined by Selina but (1971) to refer to predisposition of members of a species to be more readily conditioned to some neutral stimuli as conditioned stimulus then others. For example, humans learn more quickly to fear snakes and insects that pose a threat to our survival than to stimuli such as pictures of flowers that are nonthreatening.
Define respondent stimulus generalization and give an example.
Respondent stimulus generalization occurs when an organism has been conditioned so that a particular CS elicits a CR and then a similar stimulus elicits that CR. For example while the dentist is drilling a cavity you experience pain. The Dentist’s drill is likely to become a CS causing you to cringe. Later at the meat market you heart the sound of the butchers cutting machine, you feel yourself cringing.
Define respondent stimulus discrimination and give an example.
Respondent stimulus discrimination occurs hen a stimulus that functions as a CS to elicit a CR because that stimulus has been paired with a US that elicits that CR but a similar stimulus does not function as a CS for that CR because the second stimulus has been paired with extinction trials. For example, if we were to experience several episodes of the dentists drill partied with pain, and several episodes of the butchers cutting machine never being paired with pain then we would eventually show respondent stimulus discrimination.
What is aversion therapy? Give an example.
The process of pairing something unpleasant m (such as nausea) with an undesirable behaviour ( such as alovhol drinking for someone with alcoholism ) with the goal of decreasing their undesirable behaviour is revered to as aversion therapy.
What is operant behaviour? Give an example. Q
Operant behaviour is behaviour that is influenced by its consequences. Behaviour that affects it “operates on” the environment to produce consequences and which is in turn, influenced by this’s consequences. For example putting gas I. Your car, asking for directions, writing an exam, turning on a computer and making breakfast.