Flashcards in Chapter 4- Unit 1 Deck (14):
What is a baseline ?
A measure of behaviour in the absence of a treatment program
What is a positive reinforcer?
Event that, when presented immediately following a behaviour, causes the behaviour to increase in frequency.
What is the principle of positive reinforcement?
If someone in a given situation does something that is followed immediately by a positive reinforcer, then that person is more likely to do the same thing the next time he or she encounters a similar situation.
What is operant behaviour? Give an example and indicate how the example fits the definition of operant behaviour.
Behaviours that operate on the environment to generate consequences and are in turn influenced by those consequences.
Example: while waiting in a long line of cars for the light to change at a busy intersection, a car stops in the alley on your right, you wave to the driver to pull into the line of traffic in front of you, the driver note and waves thanks and pulls on. The pleasant feedback from the driver increases the likelihood that you will be courteous in similar situations in the future. This behaviour was a result of environmental factors with the consequence being thanked, so this consequence influenced this behaviour to occur again.
How are positive and negative reinforcement similar, and how are they different?
Both negative and positive reinforcement increase a response, but negative reinforcement increases the response by removing a stimulus, whereas positive reinforcement increases the response be the presence of a stimulus.
Why is it necessary to be specific when selecting a behaviour for a reinforcement program?
Being specific helps ensure the reliability of detecting instances of the behaviour and changes in its frequency, which is the measure by which one judges reinforcer effectiveness. Also increases the likelihood that the reinforcement program will be applied consistently.
Using the definition of positive reinforcer, how might you conduct a test to determine if the social attention of a particular adult is or is not reinforcing for a withdrawn child?
Choose a behaviour that the child emits occasionally and that does not appear to be followed by any reinforcer, record how often the behaviour occurs without obvious reinforcement over several trials, and then present the social attention of the adult following her behaviour for a few additional trials and see what happens. If the child begins to emit that behaviour more often, then the attention is indeed a reinforcer. Otherwise it is not a reinforcer
What do behaviour modifiers mean by the term deprivation? Give an example.
The time during which an individual does not experience the reinforcer. Example: how long a child has not been allowed to eat candy.
What do behaviour modifiers mean by the term satiation? Give an example.
Refers to that condition in which the individual had experienced the reinforcer to such an extent that is no longer reinforcing.
Example: if a child is praised at everything they do eventually they won’t value the praising because it happens to often.
Distinguish between the direct and indirect-acting effects of reinforcement
Direct acting effect: increases frequency I a response because if it’s immediate reinforcing consequences.
Indirect- acting effects: strengthening of a response that is followed by a reinforcer even though the reinforcer is delayed.
Give an example of a contingent reinforcement.
Must have a grade average above a specific percentage in order to receive an entrance scholarship from university.
What is adventitious reinforcement? what is a superstitious behaviour? Give an example of each that are not in this chapter.
Adventitious reinforcement: behaviour that is accidentally followed by a reinforcer may be increased even if it did not actually produce the reinforcer. Example: while Johnny is drawing in the walls with crayons his parents call him to get some ice cream, the behaviour of drawing on the walls may increase Johnny’s tendency to draw on walls. Superstitious behaviour l: the behaviour increases through adventitious reinforcement. Example: basketball player has a lucky pair of ball shoes that he always wears to tournaments.
What do we mean by the natural environment ? By natural reinforcers? By programmed reinforcers?
A setting in which an individual carries our normal, everyday functions is the natural environment. Reinforcers that follow behaviour in the course of everyday living are called natural reinforcers. Reinforcers that are arranged systematically by psychologists, teachers, and other sin behaviour modification programs are referred to we programmed reinforcers.