Flashcards in Chapter 12 and 13 Unit 3 Deck (21):
4. Define limited responding DRL, and give an example.
A limited responding DRL specifies a maximum number of responses during a certain time interval in order for a response to occur. For example, an interval may be specified and a reinforcer occurs at the end of the interval of a behaviour meets the desired needs. For example his was the type of schedule used with tommy. In that case, an interval (50 mins) was specified and a reinforcer occurred at the end of the time interval if contained 3 or fewer talk outs (inappropriate and over vocalized talking in class)
5. Define spaced responding DRL, and give an example:
Space responding DRL requires that a specified behaviour not occur during a specified interval and after the interval has passed, and instance if the behaviour must then occur in order die a reinforcer to occur or in other words, instances of a specific behaviour must be spaced out over time. For example this could be used when the behaviour to be reduced is actually desirable provided that it does not occur at top high a rate. For example, a student who always calls out correct ans we deprives classmates of the chance to respond to the teachers questions. To reduce he amount o answering a DRL schedule can be applied:
Any response after 15 from the previous target response is reinforced immediately. Any response within the 15 min interval is not reinforced.
8. Give in some detail an example of how DRL would be useful in treating behaviour problem. Indicate which type of DRL is to be used.
A DRL could be used to get a child who constantly shouts out the answers in class to decrease the amount of times fusing class, the teacher may make a deal with the student so that every time he only shouts out 7 times he gets a chocolate. This is a limited responding DRL where some of the behaviour is tolerable but less is better.
10. Give in some detail an example of how a DRO night be useful in treating a behaviour problem.p
A DRO night be useful in treating a bad habit of swearing, the schedule will be referred to as a DRO 5 minutes, if swearing occurs in the 5 minutes, the interval will start again. However, if swearing did not occur within the 5 minutes then the behaviour would be reinforced with something such as tv, video games or snacks.
14. What is the difference between DRI and DRA?
DRA is a procedure which involves the extinction of a problem behaviour combined with reinforcing a behaviour that is topographically dissimilar to but, not necessarily incompatible with the problem behaviour. Whereas a DRI is a schedule of reinforcement in which a reinforcer is reinforcer only if a particular response occurs at a low rate.
15. What happens if the frequency if the frequency of reinforcement on DRL, DRO, DRI or DRA is too low or is decreased too rapidly?
It cases the desirable behaviour to occur at a low rate and not persistently.
16. Describe a pitfall of DRL for people who are ignorant of its effect. give an example
A pitfall that is unique to DRL is the t been trying to unknowingly reinforce a desirable behaviour on a DRL, thereby causing that desirable behaviour to occur at a low rate rather thank reinforcing the behaviour on a schedule that would maintain that behaviour as a high rate. Consider for example what happens when a child starts performing well in school , at first the teacher is very impressed and reinforced the behaviour hour as the rare if the behaviour increases, fb teacher gradually becomes less impressed. The teacher thinks this this is obviously a bright child and expects a rate of good behaviour for them, thus the rate if reinforcement gradually decreases.
3. What is a punisher? Give an example that you experienced and identify both the response and the punisher.
A punisher is an immediate consequence of an operant behaviour that causes gay behaviour to decrease in frequencies. For example, touching a hot stove (response) and getting burnt (punisher) .
4. State the principle of punishment
If in a given situation, someone does something that is immediately followed by a punisher, the. That person is likely to do the same thing again when she or he next encounters a similar situation.
5. How does the meaning of the word punish Ken for behaviour modifiers differ from three meanings of that word for most people?
1. It occurs immediately after the probables behaviour
2. It is not a form of moral sanction, vengeance or retribution
3. It is not used to deter others from engaging in the target behaviour
6. Define unconditioned punisher, and give an example that illustrates the complete definition.
It is stimuli that are punishing without prior learning for example you feeling on your hand after you touch the stove.
7. Describe or define four different types of punishers and give an example of each.
Physical punisher: stimuli that activates pain receptors called nociceptors. (Spankings)
Reprimand: a strong negative verbal stimulus immediately contingent in behaviour (parent saying “no! That was bad!” After a child emits undesirable behaviour
Timeout: period of time immediately following a particular behaviour during which an individual loses the opportunity to earn reinforcers. Can be exclusionary or non exclusionary. ( being sent to your room for an hour after having bad stuff with parents
Response cost: the removal of a specified amount of reinforcer immediately following a behaviour, can be direct acting or infrareds acting effect. (Losing tokens for off task behaviour)
10. Distinguish between an exclusionary and non exclusionary time-out
An exclusionary time-out consists of removing an individual briefly from s reinforcing situation immediately following a behaviour. A non exclusionary time-out consists of introducing into the situation, immediately following s behaviour / stimulus associated with reinforcement.
12. State the procedures for extinction, response cost and exclusionary time-out.
Extinction- a reinforcer is withheld following a previously reinforced response.
Response cost- a reinforcer is taken away following an undesirable response. Exclusionary time-out- removing an individual briefly from a reinforcing situation immediately following a behaviour.
13. Distinguish between the direct acting and indirect acting effects it punishment. Give an example of each .
The direct acting effect of punishment is the decreased frequency of a response because of its immediate punishing consequences and indirect acting effects is the weakening of a response that is follow by a punisher even though the punisher is delayed. For example, spanking a child who misbehaves in a grocery store (direct acting) it getting a speeding ticket for speeding (Indirect acting).
18. Compared S^D to S^Dp. Give an example of each from your own experience.
S^D is a tumulus in the presence of which a response will be reinforced, for example be music if icecream truck is an SD for me to go outside and buy ice cream. An SDp is a stimulus in the presence of which a response will be punished. For example a child hits another kid and the mom punishes him with physical exercise.
19. Compare Sdelta to SDp. Give an example of each from your own experience.
S delta is a stimulus in the presence of which s response will jot pay off and an SDp is a stimulus in the presence of which a response will be punished. For example if every time a child swore the parents simply ignore them, it can reduce children’s swearing and it is an example of s delta. But if parents deduct 25 cents from children’s allowance each time they swore it will also decrease their swearing but will be an example of SDp.
20. What are four guidelines in regard to delivering a punisher?
1. The punisher should be present immediately following the undesirable behaviour
2. The punisher should be presented following every instance if the undesirable behaviour
3. The delivery of the punisher should not be paired with positive reinforcement
4. The person administering the punisher should remain calm when doing so.
22. In two or three sentences describe the other the case if lemon juice therapy with Sandra or the ice cube therapy with Gerri
Gerri had a severe case of grinding ones teeth. She was given a mild pain inducing punishment, which was that each time Gerri audibly ground her teeth; a staff member touched her face with an once cube for a few seconds. Her teeth grinding decreased within the first few days of testament and her bruxism almost completely ceased after 2 months of treatment.
25. Cure six potential harmful side effects of the application of punishment
1. Aggressive behaviour
2. Emotional behaviour
3. Escape and avoidance behaviour
4. No new behaviour
5. Modeling of punishment
6. Overuse of punishment