Chapter 30& 31 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 30& 31 Vocab Deck (50)
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1

A natural solid substance with a definite geometric shape.

Crystal

2

Two minerals with the same elements, but the elements are bonded together differently.

Polymorphs

3

A means of determining the hardness of a substance (1-10) diamond-hardest(10)
Talc-softest (1)

Mohs scale of harness

4

Splitting of minerals along smooth, flat surfaces.

Cleavage

5

The breaking of a mineral somewhere other than the cleavage plane.

Fracture

6

How's a mineral appears when it reflects light.

Luster

7

The color of a mineral when it's in powdered form.

Streak

8

A measure of density. Describes the change in the volume of water when a dense solid is placed in it.

Specific Gravity

9

Contain mostly silicon and oxygen. Most common are Quartz and feldspar.

Silicates

10

Contain oxygen and a metal. Industrial metal ores.

Oxides

11

Contains carbon and oxygen (co3) most common- calcium corbonate (limestone)

Carbonate

12

Contains sulfur and a metal. (Pyrite)

Sulfides

13

Contain sulfur, oxygen, and a metal. (Gypsum)

Sulfates

14

Molten rock from the Earth's interior.

Magma

15

Come from magma. Make up 95% of rocks in the Earth's crust. (Basalt and granite)

Igneous rocks

16

Formed from pieces of other rocks (erosion). Sandstone, shale, limestone.

Sedimentary rock

17

Formed from pre-existing rocks and extreme hear or pressure. (Marble, slate)

Metamorphic Rock

18

Formed at the earths surface.

Extrusive igneous rocks

19

Molten material that forms from magma on the earths surface.

Lava

20

Lava that pours out onto the earths surface through a central vent.

Volcano

21

Built from layers of lava. Broad based and gently sloping sides. Very large. (Mauna Loa)

Shield cone

22

Very steep sides. Built from ashes, cinders, and rock. Relatively short. (300m)

Cinder cones

23

Consist of alternating layers of lava, ash, and mud. Steep sides, very large. (Mt. Fuji, mt. St. Helens)

Composite cones

24

The funnel shaped pit at the top of a volcano.

Crater

25

A large basin shaped depression formed when an explosion destroys the upper portion of a volcano.

Caldera

26

Igneous rocks formed from magma that cools.

Intrusive igneous rocks

27

Vertical column of magma.

Dike

28

Horizontal layers of magma.

Sill

29

Push overlying rock layers upward.

Laccolith

30

Largest of all the igneous intrusions.

Batholith