Chapter 32: Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 32: Vocab Deck (38)
1

A machine that measure seismic waves.

Seismograph

2

Waves that travel through the Earths interior.

Body waves

3

Fastest waves that compress and expand rock. Can travel through anything.

Primary waves (p waves)

4

Transverse. Particles travel perpendicular to the direction of wave motion. Can travel only through solids.

Secondary waves (s waves)

5

Travel on the earths surface.

Surface waves

6

Waves that move up and down.

Rayleigh waves

7

Waves that move side to side and are the slowest.

Love waves

8

Separates the crust from the mantle.

Mohorovoicic discontinuity

9

Composed of iron and nickel.

Core

10

Solid layer of the earth.

Inner core

11

Movement of the outer core helps create the earths magnetic field.

Outer core

12

Surrounds the core, 3000 km thick.

Mantle

13

Lower part of the upper mantle. Flows like plastic.

Asthenosphere

14

100 km thick, includes the upper portion upper mantle and the crust.

Lithosphere

15

The top part of the lithosphere varies in depth. Oceanic
Crust- 10 km thick. Continental crust- 20-60 km thick.

Crust

16

Compression of rocks cause the Earth's crust to bend.

Fold

17

Rocks that are folded or pushed downward.

Syncline

18

Rocks that are pushed upward.

Anticline

19

Rocks that are under pressure and actually break.

Fault

20

The rock that is above the fault plane.

Hanging wall

21

The rock that is below the fault plane.

Footwall

22

Hanging wall that drops below the footwall.

Normal fault

23

The hanging wall moves above the footwall. (Rockies)

Reverse fault

24

Footwall and hanging wall move horizontally past each other. (San Andreas fault)

Strike slip fault

25

Measures amplitude of seismic waves. Logarithmic. Energy/ magnitude.

Richter scale

26

Measures damage caused by earthquake.

Mercalli scale

27

All the continents were once connected into a single supercontinent.

Pangaea

28

Proposed by Alfred wegener. The idea that all the continents were connected and over time have moved to their current locations.

Continental drift

29

Proposed by H. H. Hess. Convection cells in the mantle push new material up to the surface at mid ocean ridges. Older lithospheric material will be found farther from the mid ocean ridge.

Seafloor spreading

30

The earths lithosphere is divided into several large plates that ride on the asthenosphere. Earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountains typically occur at plate boundaries.

Theory of plate tectonics

31

Plate boundary with plates moving apart. (Mid Atlantic ridge)

Divergent boundary

32

Plate boundary with plates that run into each other.

Convergent boundary

33

One plate is forced under the other plate, creates an oceanic trench.

Subduction

34

The more dense plate is pushed downward, creates island arcs.

Oceanic-oceanic

35

Oceanic plate is subducted. Creates active volcanoes and mountains.

Oceanic- continental

36

The plates break and fold on each other; form mountains (Himalayas). Earthquakes are common but no subduction.

Continental-continental

37

Plates are sliding past each other. No subduction, earthquakes are common. (Strike-slip fault) (San Andreas fault)

Transform fault

38

Earthquake generated waves.

Seismic waves