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Nervous system structures

Brain, spinal chord, nerves

1

Integumentary system structures

Skin, hair, nails, sweat, and oil glands

2

Respiratory structures

Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs

3

Digestive structures

Mouth, pharynx, esophagus stomach, small and large intestines, and rectum

4

Excretory structures

Skin, lungs, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

5

Skeletal structures

Bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons

6

Muscular structures

Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle

7

Circulatory structures

Heart, blood vessels, blood

8

Endocrine system

Hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries, and testes

9

Reproductive system structures

Testes, epididymis, vas deferents, urethra, penis, ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina

10

Lymphatic structures

White blood cells, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, lymph vessels

11

Nervous system functions

Recognize and coordinate the body's response to changes in environments

12

Integumentary system functions

Serves as a barrier against infection and injury, helps to regulate body temperature, provides protection against uv rays from the sun

13

Respiratory functions

Provides O2 needed for cellular respiration and removes excess CO2 from the body

14

Digestive system functions

Converts foods into simpler molecules that can be used by the body cells of the body, absorbs foods, eliminates waste

15

Excretory system functions

Eliminates waste products to maintain homeostasis

16

Skeletal system functions

Supports the body, protects internal organs, allows movement, stores mineral reserves, provides a site for blood cell formation

17

Muscular system functions

Brings oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells, fights infection, removes cell wastes, helps to regulate body temperature

18

Endocrine system functions

Controls growth development, and metabolism, maintains homeostasis

19

Reproductive system functions

Produces reproductive cells and nurtures embryos in females

20

Lymphatic/Immune system functions

Helps protect the body from disease, collects fluid lost from blood vessels and returns the fluid to the circulatory system

21

Includes glands and tissues that cover interior and exterior surfaces

Epithelial tissue

22

Provides support for the body and connects its parts

Connective tissue

23

Transmits nerve impulses

Nervous tissue

24

Enables the body to move along with bones

Muscle tissue

25

Negative feedback- the process in which a stimulus produces a response that opposes the original stimulus

Feedback inhibition

26

The nervous system...

Controls and coordinates functions throughout the body and responds to internal and external stimuli

27

Electrical signals

Impulses

28

Cells that transmit impulses/ functional unit of the nervous system

Neurons

29

3 types of neurons

1. Sensory neuron
2. Motor neuron
3. Interneuron

30

Transports info from sense organ to brain

Sensory neurons

31

Takes info from brain to muscles for response

Motor neuron

32

Carry impulses between sensory and motor neurons

Interneuron

33

Largest part of a neuron

Cell body

34

Short fibers that bring the signal into the body

Dendrite

35

Long fibers that carry impulses away from the cell body

Axon

36

Insulator: allows impulses to jump from node to node

Myelin sheath

37

Contain neurotransmitters which communicate across synapses to dendrites of other cells

Axon terminals

38

Outside of cell net charge

Positive

39

Inside of cell net charge

Negative

40

Cell membrane charge

Electrically charged

41

Sodium potassium directions

Sodium out, potassium in

42

Electrical charge across the cell membrane of a neuron in its resting state

Resting potential

43

Reversal of charges, a nerve impulse

Action potential

44

Minimum level of a stimulus that is required to activate a neuron

Threshold

45

Location whet a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell

Synapse

46

Chemicals used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse to another cell

Neurotransmitter

47

Three layers of connective tissue that wrap the brain and spinal chord

Meninges

48

Fluid between the meninges that acts as a shock absorber and a protector to the CNS

Cerebrospinal fluid

49

Cerebrum functions

Voluntary, conscious movement, intelligence, and judgement

50

Connects the right and left hemispheres of the cerebrum

Corpus callosum

51

4 lobes and their functions

1. Frontal lobe- emotions and judgement
2. temporal lobe- Hearing and memory
3. Occipital lobe- vision
4. Parietal lobe- spatial, touch, and reading

52

Processes info from sense organs and controls movement

Gray matter

53

Connects cerebral cortex and brain stem

White matter

54

Cerebellum functions

Coordinates and balances acting of muscles to move efficiently

55

Brain stem functions

Involuntary functions- breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, swallowing

56

Make up the brain stem

Pons and medulla oblongata

57

Thalamus functions

Receives messages from all sensory receptors then relays info to region of cerebrum for processing

58

Hypothalamus functions

Controls thirst, hunger, fatigue, anger, body temperature

59

Divisions in the peripheral nervous system

Motor division and sensory division

60

Divisions of the motor division

Somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system

61

divisions in the autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system

62

React to specific stimuli by sending impulses to other neurons

Sensory receptors

63

5 types of receptors

PPMTC
Pain
Photo
Mechano
Thermo
Chemo

64

Small opening inside the iris

Pupil