Chapter 3.5 Genetic modification and biotechnology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3.5 Genetic modification and biotechnology Deck (13):
1

Gel electrophoresis

used to separate proteins or fragments of DNA according to size in an effort to identify its origin. Enzymes are used to chop up the long filaments of DNA into varying sizes.

2

Clones

groups of genetically identical organisms derived from a single original parent cell

3

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

PCR is a laboratory technique using a machine called a thermocycler that takes a very small quantity of DNA and copies all the nucleic acids in it to make millions of copies of the DNA. PCR is used to solve the problem of how to get enough DNA to be able to analyze it. (scene of crime)

4

DNA profiling

the process of matching an unknown sample of DNA with a known sample to see if they correspond

5

Gene Transfer

the technique of taking a gene out of one organism (donor organism) and placing it in another organism (the host organism).

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Endonucleases

restriction enzymes that find and recognize a specific sequence of base pairs along the DNA molecule.

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DNA ligase

enzyme that pastes genes by recognizing the parts of the base sequences that are supposed to be linked together, called the sticky ends, and attaches them.

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Copying DNA

Needs a host cell in addition to the cutting and pasting enzymes. Most popular host cell in genetic engineering is E.coli. Like other prokaryotes, most of the genetic information is in the bacterium's single chromosome. However some is found in plasmids. To copy a gene, it must be glued into a plasmid. To do this, A plasmid is removed from the host cell and cut open using a restriction endonuclease. The gene to be copied is placed inside the open plasmid. (Gene splicing), gene is pasted into the plasmid using DNA ligase. The plasmid is now called a recombinant plasmid and it can be used as a vector, a tool for introducing a new gene into an organism's genetic makeup. The vector is placed inside the host bacterium and the bacterium is given its ideal conditions in which to grow and proliferate.

9

Cutting and pasting DNA

Scissors used for cutting bas sequences are enzymes, the restriction enzymes (endonucleases) find and recognize a specific sequence of base paris along the DNA molecule. Some can locate sets of 4 bases, some of 6. The endonucleases cut the DNA at specific points, if both the beginning and end are cut, the gene is released and can be removed from the donor organism. An enzyme (DNA ligase) pastes the genes by recognizing the parts of the base sequences that are supposed to be linked together and attaches them.

10

Genetically modified organism (GMO)

organism that has an artificial genetic change made using the techniques of genetic engineering, such as gene transfer or recombinant DNA.

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Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

specific technique of reproductive cloning, named like this because it uses a cell that is not an egg cell (therefore it is a somatic cell) and it has had its nucleus removed and replaced by another nucleus

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Reproductive cloning

cloning that makes an entire individual

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Therapeutic cloning

making organisms but simply in making copies of cells, it's aim is to develop cells that have not yet gone through the process of differentiation