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Flashcards in Chapter 36 pharm 343 Deck (29):
1

*dextromethorphan

is a nonopioid antitussive that is available alone or in conbination with many other cough and cold preparations. safe and nonaddicting. not cause CNS or resp depression. preg C category.

2

*diphenhydramine (benedryl)

traditional antihist, also has anticholinergic and seddative effects. it is used as a hypnotic drug. used for relief or prevention of histamine-mediated allergies. used in conjunction with epinephrinein the managemtn of anaphylaxis. preg B category. oral, perenteral, and topical.

3

*guafenesin (mucinex)

expectorant and symptomatic managemtn of coughs. thins mucous that is hard to cough up. short half life and sustained release. preg C category.

4

*loratadine (claritin)

nonsedating antihist and taken once a day. doesnt distribute CNS. drowsiness, headache, and fatigue could be seen. pregnancy B category.

5

adrenergics (sympathomimetics)

drugs that stimulate the sympathetic nerve fibers of the automatic nervous system that us epinephrine or epinephrine-like substances as neurotransmitters.

6

agonists

drugs that exert an action opposite to that of another drug or compete for the same receptor sites.

7

anticholinergics (parasympatholytics)

drugs that block the action of acetylcholine and similar substances at acetylcholine receptors, which results in inhibition of the transmission of parasympathetic nerve impulses.

8

antigens

substances that are capable of inducing specific immune responses and reacting with the specific products of those responses, such as antibodies and specifically sensitized T-lymphocytes. antigens can be soluble or insoluble.

9

antihistamines

substances capable of reducing the physiologic and pharmocologic effects of histamine. work by blocking the histamine receptors on the surfaces of basophils and mast cells. they do not push off histamine that is already bound to a receptor but compete with histamine for unoccupied receptors. sometimes used as sleep aids. they are not to be used as sole drug during acute asthmatic attacks. drowsiness is complaint. anticholinergic make dry mouth.

10

antitussive

a drug that reduces coughing, often by inhibiting neurel activity in the cough center of the central nervous system. the cough reflex is when receptors in the bronchi, alveoli, and pluera are stretched. opioid and nonopioid. all opioid have antitussives effects. non is less effective than opioid. stop the cough reflex.

11

corticosteroids

any of the hormones produced by the adrenal cortex, either in natural or synthetic drug form. they control many key processes in the body, such as carbs, proteins, and glucose levels.

12

decongestants

drugs that reduce congestion or swelling, especially in the upper or lower resp tract. is due to excessive nasal secretions and inflamed and swollen nasal mucosa. orally, inhaled, topically.

12

expectorants

drugs that increase the flow of fluid in the resp tract, usually by reducing the viscosity of secretions, and facilitate their removal by coughing. indirectly diminishes the tendency to cough.

13

empiric therapy

a method of treating disease based on observations and experience, rather than a knowledge of the precise cause for the disorder.

13

histamine antagonists

drugs that compete with histamine for binding sites on histamine receptors.

14

nonsedating antihistamines

meds that primarily work peripherally to block the actions of histamine and therefore do no generally have the central nervous system effects of many of the older antihistamines; second generation and peripherally acting antihistamines.

15

reflex stimulation

an irritation of the resp tract occuring in response to an irritation of the GI tract.

16

influenza

a highly contagious infection of the resp tract caused by a myxovirus and transmitted by airborne droplets.

16

rhinovirus

any of abt 100 serologically distinct RNA viruses that cause about 40% of acute respiratory illnesses.

17

sympathomimetic drugs

a class of drugs whose effects mimic those resulting from the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system.

18

URI

any infectious disease of the upper resp tract including commone cold, laryngitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, and tonsilitis.

19

H1

mediate smooth muscle contraction and dilation of capillaries. paliative, not curative.

20

H2

mediate accerleration of the heart rate and gastric acid secretions.

21

histamine

is a major inflammatory mediator in many allergic disorders.

22

nonsedating antihistamines

made to eliminate adverse effects. they do not go thru blood brain barrier.

23

traditional antihis

more effective than nonsedating antihist. used alone or combined with other drugs. respond well to the older drugs.

24

rebound congestion

rebound congestion occurs bcuz of the very rapid absorption of the drug through mucous membranes followed by a more rapid decline in therapeutic activity. dependence to the nasal sprays.

25

nasal decongestives

shrink engorged nasal mucous membranes and relieve nasal stuffiness. nasal steroids are aimed at the inflammatory response by invaded organisms. it is to give pt comfort. sympathomimetic and nasal decongestives likely to cause toxicity.

26

opioid antitussives

provide analgesia and have a drying effect on the mucosa of the resp tract which increases viscosity of resp secretions. opioid dependecy and resp depression.